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Portrait of a Girl with Battledore and Shuttlecock

Portrait of a Girl with Battledore and Shuttlecock


BADMINTON FINE ART

Over the years various artists have created paintings and other fine art that in one way or another are related to the sport of Badminton. While much of this work is early enough that it predates organized Badminton, the "battledore and shuttlecock" roots of our sport are clearly well reprsented.

This page is a pointer to selected pieces. Where possible locations of the originals are listed so that if you are in the correct area you can view them. If you know the location of other pieces or can augment or correct this page please let me know. Also in many cases it is possible to buy quality prints or hires bitmaps of the art. I have included selected links, though other sources are likely extant.

Please note that I have not included hi-resolution pictures of the various pieces since the intention of this page is merely as a reference. Find the actual artwork for better pictures and/or reproductions.

For centuries Battledore and Shuttlecock was a casual game played without a net by adults and children. During this era one often finds serious portraits and scenes that have battledores and/or shuttlecocks as props and sometimes as a major theme. In modern day art shuttlecocks are more often themselves seen as art and badminton becomes action art.

Title: Portrait of a Young Boy with Battledore and Shuttlecock
Date: c. 1620
Artist: unknown - Anglo-Flemish school
Medium: oil on canvas
Dimensions: 1100x850 mm
Original is located at:
Reproductions Available:
Title: Two Women Playing Battledore and Shuttlecock.
Date: c. 1620
Artist: Adriaen van de Venne (1589-1662), Netherlands.
Medium: Watercolour with bodycolour, over black chalk, heightened with silver and gold
Dimensions: 96x152 mm
Original is located at: British Museum, London, England
Reproductions Available:
Title: Le Jue du Volant
Date: late 17th Century
Artist: Nicolas Arnoult (ca 1650- ca 1722)
Medium: print - engraving and etching on laid paper
Dimensions: 140x89 mm
Original is located at: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA.
Reproductions Available: All Posters
Title: Courtesan Striking a Shuttlecock with a Battledore
Date: c. 1710
Artist: Okumura Masanobu (1686-1764)
Medium: Woodblock print, ink on paper
Dimensions: 650x320mm
Original is located at: Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin Ohio, USA.
Reproductions Available: ??
Title: Elegant Figures Playing Shuttlecock in a Park
Date: ca. 1725-33
Artist: Pierre-Antoine Quillard (1700-1733)
Medium:
Dimensions: mm
Original is located at: private collection
Reproductions Available:
Title: The Diversion of Battledore and Shuttlecock
Date:
Artist: Nathaniel Parr (1723–1751) After Francis Hayman, (1707/8–1776), British
Medium: Engraving
Dimensions: mm
Original is located at: Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Reproductions Available: ??
Title: Girl With Shuttlecock
Date: 1737
Artist: Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin (1643-1713)
Medium: Oil on Canvas
Dimensions: 820x660 mm
Original is located at: Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Reproductions Available: Fine Art America , Barewalls
Title: Battledore and Shuttlecock
Date: c. 1740
Artist: Francis Hayman, (1707/8–1776), British
Medium: Pen and brown ink, brown wash, gray wash and graphite on medium, slightly textured, beige laid paper
Dimensions: 143x229 mm
Original is located at: Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Reproductions Available: ??
Title: Portrait of Two Boys
Date: 1740-42
Artist: Francis Hayman, (1707/8–1776), British
Medium: painting, oil on canvas
Dimensions: 368x279 mm
Original is located at: Gainsborough's House - Sudbury (United Kingdom - Sudbury, Suffolk)
Reproductions Available:
Title: Games, Shuttlecock
Date: 1752
Artist: Giuseppe Zocchi (c. 1716/17-67), Italian.
Medium:
Dimensions: mm
Original is located at: Opificio Delle Pietre Dure, Florence,Italy.
Reproductions Available: Art.Com
Title: Young Thomas Aston Coffin with Battledore and Shuttlecock.
Date: 1758
Artist: John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 1270x1016 mm
Original is located at: National Portrait Gallery
Reproductions Available:
Title: Portrait of a Boy
Date: c. 1758-60
Artist: John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 1236x921 mm
Original is located at: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA.
Reproductions Available: ??
Title: unknown
Date: likely mid 1700's
Artist: unknown
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Original is located at: Town Hall at Portmeirion, North Wales
Reproductions Available: ??
Title: Henry Stawell Bilson Legge, 2nd Lord Stawell (1757 - 1820), as a boy
Date: c. 1764
Artist: Adrien Carpentiers (c. 1713-1778)
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 711x610 mm
Original is located at: Lodge Park and Sherborne Estate, Gloucestershire, UK
Reproductions Available: Bridgeman Images
Title: The Norman Gate and Deputy Governor's House
Date: 1765
Artist: Paul Sandby (1731-1809)
Medium: "Gouache on thick, cream, slightly textured laid paper"
Dimensions: 540x380 mm
Original is located at: Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Reproductions Available:
Title: Portrait of sisters Frances and Sarah Delaval.
Date: 1771
Artist: William Bell (c. 1740-c.1804)
Medium: oil on canvas
Dimensions: 2360x1475 mm
Original is located at: National Trust, Seaton Delaval Hall. The Avenue, Seaton Sluice, Northumberland, England.
Reproductions Available:
Title: Boy with Battledore and Shuttlecock, Possibly of the Crossfield Family.
Date: c. 1770-75
Artist: William Williams SR. (1727-1791)
Medium: oil on canvas
Dimensions: 1347x910 mm
Original is located at: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA.
Reproductions Available:
Title: John Donnelly at 9 years old, Blackwater Town
Date: c 1775
Artist:
Medium: oil on canvas
Dimensions: 1176x870 mm
Original is located at: Tennis Australia, Melbourne, Australia
Reproductions Available:
Title: The Fly . from "Songs of Innocence and Experience", plate 48.
Date: 1794
Artist: William Blake (1757-1827), British
Medium: "Color-printed relief etching with pen and ink and watercolor on moderately thick, slightly textured, cream wove paper"
Dimensions: 73x117 mm
Original is located at: Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Reproductions Available:
Title: The Children of Frederick and Ellen Ray of Abingdon
Date: 1795
Artist: John Downman (1750-1824). Welsh.
Medium: Watercolor with pencil drawing
Dimensions: 432x508 mm mm
Original is located at: private collection
Reproductions Available:
Title: The Badminton Victory (Divertimento per li Ragazzi)
Date: c. 1797
Artist: Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (1727-1804) Italian
Medium: Pen and ink, wash and brush over black chalk on white paper
Dimensions: 294x414 mm
Original is located at: RISD Museum, Providence RI, USA.
Reproductions Available:
Title: Girl and a Hagoita (Japanese Battledor and Shuttlecock)
Date:


Portrait of a Girl with Battledore and Shuttlecock - History

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    Flying P-Liner, Reederei F. Laeisz

    So. I finally shot some film :) In 1997 I was a pretty good cartoonist. Twenty years of drawing had given me an idiosyncratic, flexible style and kind friends urged I turn professional, at least to the extent of attempting to sell my work. Then - for various reasons - I stopped drawing. Now I draw just like I did in 1977 :)

    We all know the joke: "How do I get to Carnegie Hall?" "Practice!" and nothing is truer :) It was with some scepticism that I picked up the camera after so long a gap. Lynn and I had a wonderful time in Norfolk - but the weather was generally cold, overcast and wet. I was still not entirely convinced by the Olympus and there were many things to distract us.

    Not much could be expected, but the results are perhaps not entirely without hope. I took far too many pictures of roads, but also made some tentative experiments: It was only after a week or so that I started to feel easy taking photographs. The one thing that worries me is returning to a type of picture which reflected my outlook ten years ago, but is no longer so relevant. What actually might be relevant is quite another matter :) But time will tell :)

    The Olympus is a very fine camera, with an excellent finder and perhaps the smoothest shutter I have ever encountered in an SLR. Still, I am by no means reconciled to that "round the lens" shutter ring :) The lenses are fabulous. For reasons of economy I shot Foma 400, when something slower and more subtle would have been better. but I'm happy nonetheless :)

    And the title? It's from the Psychedelic Furs - "Love my way, it's a new road/I follow where my mind goes" :) Back - hopefully with more pictures - on Tuesday, thanks to the inevitable "emergency" at work:(

    Battledore Hill, Choosley Farm, Stiffkey, Norfolk. Olympus OM2n, Zuiko f2.8 28mm. Foma 400, f8 at 1/250th. Orange filter.

    no rules, no limitations, no boundaries it's like an art™

    © All Rights Reserved by ajpscs

    TOSHI-NO ICHI AND HAGOITA ICHI (Year End Fair)

    ASAKUSA - SENSOJI TEMPLE (DEC. 17 - 19)

    The Hagoita-Ichi (Battledore Fair) is an annual fair held in its precincts at the end of the year. Near the Hondo or main hall of Senso-ji Temple, some 50 open-air stalls selling hagoita (battledores), shuttlecocks, kites and other New Year decorations stand huddled together, and numerous people gather here from all over the country. This is a traditional fair dating back to the Edo Period, but it was apparently only after World War II that the name Hagoita-Ichi became popular. It is usually displayed in the house as a New Year's ornament.

    KIMONO// HILU-KIMONO+HAORI/MY red at -HILU-

    Yukidaruma (literally, snow Daruma) is a traditional Japanese snowman representing Bodhidharma, the founder of Zen Buddhism. It is regarded as a talisman of good luck.

    Matsuo Basho (b. 1644 – d. 1694)

    Handmade Japanese paper doll made for my friend not yet framed.

    Materials: Kimono and obi (yuzen washi) battledore (clip art from 123RF) hair (black German crepe paper) hair decor (gold-colored card stock, nail art sticker).

    This small work is the first of a series of similar sized compositions Albert Moore made examining the theme of sleeping women in 1875 & 1876: Apples (1875, private collection), A Sofa (1875, private collection) and Beads (1876, National Gallery of Scotland) and a study for Beads (the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven). This subject culminated in his masterpiece, Dreamers (1882, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery). Moore developed the arrangement of figures, drapery and accoutrements through preparatory studies. Once the composition was complete he used each picture to explore different sequences of palette and colour combinations. This painting is the only one of the series to feature a cat (and of all his works) and is closest to the freer, softer brushwork favoured by his close friend and colleague, James McNeill Whistler. Moore was an eccentric, sharing his life with his dachshund dog and an army of cats, which effectively took over his home and his studio (see extracts from Time Was by W. Graham Robertson below).

    As with all painters, some works are very personal for the private collection of the artist and most works are highly finished for public consumption. This version is very personal and was retained by the artist and not shown until after his death in the Memorial Exhibition at the Grafton Gallery in 1894. It contains several private jokes and references: the mouse in the centre is peeping out from under the bench, whilst the cat, having finished its saucer of milk, sits contentedly and blissfully unaware. In a passing reference to his famous paintings Shuttlecock 1870 and Battledore 1872 (both works are studies in cooler shades of blue, as is this painting) the exhausted model drops the shuttlecock from her sleep-induced hand. And the stripes of the cat echo those of the vases on the left-hand side. The artist's anthemion signature is described both by the falling shuttlecock and the fan. It also demonstrates Moore’s classical training, where the figures are initially painted in the nude and subsequently the clothes are glazed on top. Albert Moore has used the looser, but less popular, "impressionist" technique favoured by his great friend James McNeill Whistler, whereas in the other versions he draws the outlines more carefully and finishes the works to comply with the expectations and taste of the buyers of the time. Albert Moore’s practice of the use of pattern on pattern in his compositions prefigures the paintings of Édouard Vuillard.

    This painting, although small in size, is a prime example of the Aesthetic Movement of which Albert Moore is the supreme master. The Aesthetic movement was fuelled by Japonism, demonstrated here by the apple blossom and the fan. Albert Moore chose as his vehicle for expressing Japanese sensibilities by using figures drawn from Greek antiquity (he was a great advocate of the Elgin Marbles), mixed with contemporary objects. In Japan, during the Kaei era (1848–1854), after more than 200 years of seclusion, foreign merchant ships of various nationalities had begun to visit the country. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan ended a long period of national isolation and became open to imports from the West, including photography and printing techniques. In turn, many Japanese ceramics and ukiyo-e prints, followed by Japanese textiles, bronzes, cloisonné enamels and other arts, came to Europe and America and soon gained popularity, and travel to the Far East became possible. Japanese sensibility became all the fashion rage and could be observed in the most up-to-date interior decoration.

    This perfect little Albert Moore aesthetic painting, Two female figures reclining on a sofa, in its original "Albert Moore" frame decorated with anthemion devices, was in the distinguished collection of Charles and Lavinia Handley-Read, who between them pioneered the revival of the Victorian era in the 1960s. Their taste was supreme and they collected at a time when all things Victorian were "non-U"(1). They had the market to themselves until, in 1971, Sotheby's Belgravia opened its doors, where expertise was solely devoted to selling works from the Victorian period.

    In 1865, when James McNeill Whistler's Symphony in White, The Little White Girl, was exhibited at the Royal Academy, the artist met Albert Moore whilst admiring his The Marble Seat also exhibited there. As a result of their friendship and close cooperation, together they explored the ideals of Art for Art's sake and the similarity of subject and technique in their work in the 1860's is without doubt. They were both drawing nude and draped female figures with semi-classical accessories, usually in very simple settings - by a balcony, the sea, a sofa. They made drawings in chalk on brown paper, then small oil studies, and finally, large oil paintings. In fact, Whistler's studies rarely progressed to this final stage, partly because he found the drawings satisfying for their own sake, but partly because he was worried about the danger of his and Moore's work becoming too alike.

    Whistler wrote to Moore in September 1870 about his painting Symphony in Blue and Pink (Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC) that in general sentiment of movement it was not unlike Moore's work and he was concerned as to whether they could each paint their picture without harming each other in the opinion of those who do not understand us(2). Moore’s drawing technique and Whistler's are very close around 1870. Similar cross-hatching, for instance, on drawings had lead, until the new revival of scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century, to confusion. Many Moore drawings were ascribed to Whistler, but have since have been correctly reallocated.

    Graham Robertson, Time Was (3):

    The Grosvenor Gallery was still the cave of Aladdin, hung with Jewels [1878-9] … Whistler had shown his masterpiece 'Miss Alexander' round which scoffers were already remaining to pray, and groups and single figures exquisite in colour and execution still flowed from the brush of Albert Moore.

    The technical perfection of his pictures fascinated me the rather uninteresting Graeco-West Kensington young woman who invariably appeared in them did not appeal very strongly they were a little monotonous in their calculated loveliness, but – if one could only paint like that!

    … my mother extracted a rather unwilling promise from the kindly painter to take me ‘on approval’ as a studio pupil

    His was a strange and interesting figure in the world of art. Few people knew him well, for he seldom took the trouble to make friends, yet he was the most gentle and affectionate of men. His splendid Christ-like head with its broad brows and great visionary brown eyes was set upon a awkward little body that seemed to have no connection with it.

    His favourite attitude of repose was squatting on his heels like a Japanese, and when settling himself for a talk, would suddenly subside thus on the floor, to the amazement of casual beholders.

    His usual costume was a very long and very large ulster, far too big for him and once, in remote ages, the property of an elder and taller brother. With this he wore a large broad-brimmed straw hat without a crown.

    He lived in a curious building at the corner of Holland Lane, its accommodation consisting of two huge studios, a sitting-room with nothing to sit upon it in it, a bedroom and, I suppose, a kitchen. His constant companion was Fritz, a dachshund of depressed appearance reported by models to live entirely upon sardines and oranges. Fritz’s sole accomplishment was ‘doing George Eliot’, in which impersonation he sat up with folded paws and looked down his long nose while his ears flapped forward like cap lappets.

    He was very like portraits of the distinguished authoress, but he did not realise it, and the performance bored him. The great embitterment of his life was cats. Cats pervaded the whole house vaguely, unofficially, holding no recognised position, they swarmed in the studios and passages, were born abruptly in coal-scuttles, expired unpleasantly behind canvases, making the place no home for an honest dog and taking, as it were, the very sardines out of his mouth.

    Albert Moore regarded them mournfully but placidly as inevitable. There were the cats. There also were the spiders and their cobwebs, the dust, the leaks in the pipes, and other like phenomena.

    They were perhaps not pleasant, but they were endurable, and certainly could not be got rid of without admitting tiresome people to the house who would hammer and move things about – which would be unendurable.

    I sided with Fritz about the cats, which infested the studio in which I worked, and I made one determined effort to suppress them. I turned out all I could find, rummaging out the coy or morose specimens from behind the dusty pictures until I felt sure the room was clear then I banged the door and started work again in a cat-less void with a charming sense of quiet privacy. I would be careful to keep the door shut in future I would not open the low window on to the lead where perhaps – Bump! A heavy object fell from the ceiling, smearing a long streak down my canvas and landing at my feet. “Pr-r-r-ow”, said the object, regarding me malevolently out of evil yellow eyes. It was a new cat fallen through the skylight.

    I gave up. If the Heavens themselves were against me and rained cats like manna from above, I might save myself further trouble. Henceforth I was cat-ridden like Fritz. Yet Albert Moore could never have liked cats: he was emphatically dog nature, loyal and affectionate. He had the eyes of a dog beautiful tender eyes which could light up with a brilliant smile which never reached the lips.

    Nothing in the way of papering, painting or white-washing was ever done in the house, and even of ordinary dusting I saw no sign, nor was anything ever mended.

    Many years afterwards, when I had a studio of my own, I remember calling on Albert Moore with Whistler, who had a very real admiration for his work and a great respect and liking for the man himself.

    We found him in huge, desolate workroom solemnly painting, surrounded by a circle of spoutless handle-less jugs each holding a large cornucopia of brown paper.

    Whistler was instantly fascinated by the jugs and could think of nothing else, but he remembered Moore’s dislike of being questioned. He edged nearer to me.

    “What are the jugs for?” he asked in a whisper.

    “You ask him: you’ve known him longer.”

    “You’re his pupil. You might ask him.”

    I summed up my courage. “What are the jugs for?”

    “The drips” said Albert Moore laconically.

    “The drips” whispered Whistler. “What drips? Ask him.”

    Luckily at this moment a fat water-drop oozed from the ceiling and fell with a plop into the receivers.

    The roof leaked. It had probably leaked for months, perhaps years, but Albert Moore sat dreaming amongst his jugs and never thought of repairs.

    Whistler was always at his best and gentlest with Albert Moore he understood the rather slow working of his brain and knew his thoughts were worth waiting for. Moore on his side adored Whistler, whose quick wit stimulated him. He was a sad man, and loved to laugh.

    Whistler once told me that he had tried hard to bring about a friendship between him and Rossetti, knowing how Moore would have delighted in the poet’s unexpected turns of humour but Rossetti was impatient and would not respond. “He’s a dull dog,” he pronounced. “A dull dog.”

    “He thinks slowly, but he’s not in the least dull” persisted Whistler – but it was no good.

    However, Rossetti had already won Albert Moore’s heart entirely on the occasion of their first meeting.

    As they sat down for dinner, the poet was served with soup. “I say, what a stunning plate!” cried Rossetti – and instantly turned it upside-down to look at the mark. The ensuing flood seemed to come upon him as a complete surprise, and Albert Moore laughed he remembered the incident for the rest of his life.

    That life was in many ways a very lonely one. He lived apart, absorbed by his work, know and caring little about the outside world, whose ways sometimes puzzled him very much. At such moments he would hastily seek advice, his choice of mentors was distinctly original. When in difficulty with a picture he would gradually form the habit of consulting with my mother, whose suggestions he often adopted, to her unbound surprise, but for an opinion on any social or economical point he always went to the cab rank near the gates of Holland House where the men gave him much good counsel, although sometimes the language in which it was couched provided him with an additional puzzle.

    He built up his compositions very slowly and laboriously, making elaborate charcoal cartoons of the whole group, then each single figure, first nude, then draped. Then came the chalk studies of the draperies, colour studies of the draperies, rough photographs of the draperies, so that before the great work was actually begun he had actually produced many pictures. The colour studies of the draped figures, done straight off while the model stood and never retouched, were his most perfect works. The touch was so light, the paint so fresh and exquisite in texture, the drawing and colour so true and sensitive, and they were miracles of artistry.

    After they had served their purpose as studies he would often complete them by adding heads and backgrounds, and thus it came about that so many of his pictures were so much alike two or three slightly varying studies for the same figure, each in turn developing into a finished painting.

    When the studies had all been made, the first step towards the actual picture was the putting in of the whole composition in grey monochrome. Over this, when it was dry, came a thin, fluid painting very delicate in colour through which the grey design clearly showed. Next came the heavy impasto, strong and rather hot in colour, over which, when dry, was passed a veil of semi-opaque grey and on this was wrought the third and final painting, thin and delicate like the first.

    In later years he modified this process slightly, merging the first and second paintings into one richly toned impasto painting which, while still wet, he stabbed into the canvas with a great brush until the grey drawing beneath became visible through it.

    He would always make his pupils work exactly in his method while they were under him.

    “You will not want to paint as I do when you are doing work of your own,” he would say. “You cannot know as yet how you want to paint, but what I am teaching you will help you find out.” (3)

    1. Non U (U standing for upper class) was a phrase coined by the English linguist Alan Ross in 1954 and immediately taken up by Nancy Mitford who used the term in her essay, The English Aristocracy, published by Steven Spender in Encounter Magazine the same year.

    2. Whistler papers, n.d., Glasgow University Library, BPIIM/97-8

    3. W. Graham Robertson,Time Was, the reminiscences of W. Graham Robertson, with a foreword by Sir Johnson Forbes-Robertson, Hamish Hamilton Ltd. 1931, pages 57-62


    The year of America’s ‘Declaration of Independence’ – and the year the 14-year-old daughter of a Huguenot silk merchant and weaver in Spitalfields, London, was given a diary by her stepmother entitled:

    THE LADIES ANNUAL JOURNAL OR COMPLETE POCKET BOOK for the year 1776

    She wrote short entries almost every day for a year and at first it appears that she reveals very little. But on a closer read, many things happened: her little brother was born, her grandmother died, she played battledore & shuttlecock and Quadrille, she went to France – and she drank tea.

    Her words and the diary itself are my starting point for short explorations covering her daily life, her world, family history and reflections on past, present and future.


    SECTION III BATTLEDORE and SHUTTLECOCK

    • The Albert Joseph Moore stained glass window, "Battledore" (1872 4 1/2 feet tall, in wood frame). One of the most important finds in this genre, the visual effect changes with the lighting conditions. The companion panel is featured at the Wimbledon Museum.
    • An excellent 18th century original oil painting 3 1/2 foot tall full length portrait of a young boy in elegant clothing, holding a sheepskin battledore and shuttlecock
    • Exquisite early strung rackets trimmed in velvet, gold and frills, dating to the Napoleonic era
    • A beautiful tapestry 5 feet in width
    • Rare illustrated boxed sets of Battledore & Shuttlecock game a superb group of early shuttlecocks trimmed in velvet and leather
    • Fine porcelain and glass pieces, including a fine 1883 Wedgewood pitcher, a lovely vase statue an early HOME | IMAGES | ACCOLADES | TAKEOVER


    Portrait of a Girl with Battledore and Shuttlecock - History

    ADAN, Louis Emile - [France]

    AGACHE, Alfred-Pierre - [France]

    AGRASOT Y JUAN, Joaquin - [Spain] Sisters of Charity

    ALMA-TADEMA, Laura - [Great Britain]

    ALVAREZ-DUMONT, Cesar - [Spain]

    ARTZ, David Adolf Constant - [Holland]

    AUBLET, Albert - [France]

    BAKHUYZEN VAN DE SAND, Julius Jacobus - [Holland]

    BARILLOT, Leon - [France]

    BARTELS, Hans Von - [Germany]

    BARTLETT, C. W. - [Great Britain]

    BARUCCI, Pietro - [Italy]

    BASTERT, Nicholas - [Holland]

    BATTAGLIA, Alessandro - [Italy]

    BAUMBACH, Max - [Germany]

    BECKWITH, J. Carroll - [United States]

    BELL, Edward A. - [United States]

    BERMUDO-MATEOS, Jose - [Spain]

    BERTHELON, Eugene - [France]

    BINET, Adolphe - [France]

    BISBING, H. S. - [United States]

    BLOMMERS, Bernardius Johannes- [Holland]

    BOCKELMANN, Christian Ludwig - [Germany]

    BOKS, Evert Jan - [Holland]

    BOMPARD, Maurice - [France]

    BOMPIANI, Angelo - [Italy]

    BONNEFOY, Henry - [France]

    BORDES, Ernest - [France]

    BOURDILLON, Frank N. - [Great Britain]

    BRANDT, Joseph Von - [Germany]

    BREDT, Fred Max - [Germany]

    BREITNER, George Hendrik [Holland]

    BRIDGMAN, Frederick Arthur - [United States]

    BRONNIKO, Theo. - [Russia]

    BROWN, Ford Madox - [Great Britain]

    BULLEID, G. Lawrence - [Great Britain]

    CHARLES, James - [Great Britain]

    DU CHATTELL, Frederick Jacobus - [Holland]

    CHIGOT, Eugene H. A. - [France]

    CLAUSEN, G. - [Great Britain]

    CORTESE, Federico - [Italy]

    COURTOIS, Gustav - [Italy]

    COUTURIER, Leon - [France]

    CRANE, Walter - [Great Britain]

    CURRAN, Charles C. - [United States]

    DADD, Frank - [Great Britain]

    DAMERON, Charles Emile - [France]

    DANNAT, William T. - [United States]

    DAWANT, Albert Pierre - [France]

    DEAN, Walter L. - [United States]

    DEFREGGER, Franz Ritter - [Germany]

    DE HAAS, J. H. L. - [Holland]

    DE KEYSER, Nicaise - [Belgium]

    DELOBBE, Francois Alfred - [France]

    DELORT, Charles Edouard - [France]

    DEMONT, Adrien-Louis - [France]

    DEMONT-BRETON, Madame Virginie E. - [France]

    DENMAN, Herbert - [United States]

    DESSAR, Louis Paul - [United States]
    DE VRIENDT, J. - [Belgium]

    DICKSEE, Frank - [Great Britain]

    DILLON, Julia - [United States]

    DMITRIEV-ORENBURGSKY, N. - [Russia]

    DU MOND, Frederick Melville - [United States]

    DU MOND, Frank V. - [United States]

    DUVERGER, Theophile E. - [France]

    ENNEKING, John J. - [United States]

    FARASYN, Edgard - [Belgium]

    Fisher, H. - [Great Britain]

    FISHER, S. M. - [Great Britain]

    FLETCHER, B. - [Great Britain]

    FRANCES Y PASCUAL, Placido - [Spain]

    FREER, Frederick W. - [United States]

    FRIESE, Richard - [Germany]

    GALOFRE Y OLLER, F. - [Spain]

    GABRIEL, Paul Joseph Constantin - [Holland]

    GAUGENGIGL, Ignatz Marcel - [United States]

    GILBERT, Victor Gabriel - [France]

    GISELA, Josef - [Austria]

    GLAIZE, Auguste Barthelemy - [France]

    GOLTZ, Alexander D. - [Austria]

    GOLYNSKI, Vassilli - [Russia]

    GORGUET, Auguste Francois - [France]

    GOTCH, T. C. - [Great Britain]

    GRAFLY, Charles - [United States]

    GREEN, C. - [Great Britain]

    GUIGNARD, Gaston - [France]

    GUILLEN-PEDEMONTE, H. - [Spain]

    GUILLOU, Alfred - [France]

    GUTHERZ, Carl - [United States]

    GYSIS, Nikolas - [Germany]

    HALL, Frederick - [Great Britain]

    HARDIE, Robert Gordon - [United States]

    HARE, St. George - [Great Britain]

    HARTMANN, Karl - [Germany]

    HASSAM, Childe - [United States]

    HENRY, Edward L. - [United States]

    HERMANN, Hans - [Germany]

    HIRSCHEL, Adolphe - [Austria]

    HOECKER, Paul - [Germany]

    HOELZEL, Adolf - [Germany]

    HOWE, William Henry - [United States]

    HOWLAND, Alfred C. - [United States]

    ISRAELS, Josef - [Holland]

    JIMENEZ-ARANDA, Jose - [Spain]

    JIMENEZ-ARANDA, Luis - [Spain]

    JOLYET, Philippe - [France]

    KATE, J. M. Ten - [Holland]

    KAULBACH, Hermann - [Germany]

    KENNINGTON, T.B. - [Great Britain]

    KEVER, Jacob Simon Hendrik - [Holland]

    KING, Yeend - [Great Britain]

    KIWCHENKO, Alexis - [Russia]

    KLINKENBERG, Karel - [Holland]

    KNIGHT, Joseph Buxton - [Great Britain]

    KORZOUKHINE, Alexis - [Russia]

    KOVALEVSKI, Paul - (Russia)

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    LANGLEY, Walter - [Great Britain]

    LA TOUCHE, Gaston - [France]

    LAUPHEIMER, Anton - [Germany]

    LEHMANN, Rudolf - [Great Britain]

    LEISTIKOW, Walter - [Germany]

    LELOIR, Maurice - [France]

    LEMAIRE, Madame Madeleine - [France]

    LEROY, Paul Alexander Alfred - [France]

    LILJEFORS, Bruno - [Sweden]

    LOGSDAIL, W. - [Great Britain]

    LUCAS, Marie S. - [Great Britain]

    LUMINAIS, Evariste Vital - [France]

    MCILHENNY, C. M. - [United States]

    MAC EWEN, Walter - [United States]

    MAKOVSKY, Vladimir - [Russia]

    MARIAS, Adolphe Charles - [France]

    MARR, Carl - [United States]

    MARTENS, Willy - [Holland]

    MAYNARD, George W. - [United States]

    MESDAG, Hendrik Willem - [Holland]

    MESDAG-VAN-HOUTEN, S. - [Holland]

    MEULEN, Francis Pieter Ter - [Holland]

    MIASOIEDOFF, G. G. - [Russia]

    MILLAIS, Sir John Everett - [Great Britain]

    MOREAU DE TOURS, Georges - [France]

    MORENO-CARBONERO, Jose - [Spain]

    MORERA Y GALICIA, Jaime - [Spain]

    MORRIS, Philip Richard - [Great Britain]

    MUENIER, Jules Alexis - [France]

    Muller, Leopold - [Austria]

    MULLER, Peter Paul - [Germany]

    MUNSCH, Josef - [Germany]

    NETTLETON, Walter - [United States]

    NICHOLS, Rhoda Holmes - [United States]

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    RICHEMONT, Alfred Paul Marie de - [France]

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    SINIBALDI, Paul Jean Raphael - [France]

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    SPRING, Alfons - [Germany]

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    THOMAS, S. Seymour - [United States]

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    TIFFANY, Louis C. - [United States]

    TITCOMB, William Holt Yates - [Great Britain]

    TOMMASI, Publio de - [Italy]

    TOPHAM, Francis W. W. - [Great Britain]

    TOUDOUZE, Edouard - [France]

    TRUPHEME, Auguste - [France]

    TSCHAGGENY, Charles Philogene - [Belgium]

    TUKE, Henry Scott - [Great Britain]

    TVOROJUIKOF, J. J. - [Russia]

    TVOROZHNIKOV, Ivan - [Russia]

    TYTGADT, Louis - [Belgium]

    UHDE, Friedrich Hermann Karl von - [Germany]

    ULRICH, Charles F. - [United States]

    VAIL, Eugene - [United States]

    VALKENBURG, Hendrik - [Holland]

    VAN DER WEELE, Herman Jan - [Holland]

    VELTEN, Wilhelm - [Germany]

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    VILLEGAS-BRIEVA, Manuel - [Spain]

    VINTON, Frederick P. - [United States]

    VOLZ, Wilhelm - [Germany]

    VUILLEFROY, Felix Dominique - [France]

    WAHLBERG, Alfred - [Sweden]

    WALKER, Henry Oliver - [Great Britain]

    WALLER, Samuel Edmond - [Great Britain]

    WALTON, Frank - [Great Britain]

    WARD, E. M. - [Great Britain]

    WATTS, George Frederick - [Great Britain]

    WEEKS, Edward Lord - [United States]

    WEGUELIN, J. R. - [Great Britain]

    WETHERBEE, George - [Great Britain]

    WILES, Irving R. - [United States]

    Copyright, Paul V. Galvin Library
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    This photo, probably taken in 1865, captures the twins as they planned a tour in 1866 to recoup money lost during the Civil War. The Bunkers died in 1874.

    Editor's Note: This story was originally published in the December 1995 issue of Blue Ridge Country. For more great stories like this, download our iPad app or view our digital magazine today!

    A cry split the night, but for whatever reason, it raised no alarm in the large house outside Mt. Airy, NC. Doubtless just a dream, or more likely, a nightmare. A few hours later, the winter stillness was broken yet again, this time by a different voice. Upon awakening and seeing his twin brother dead beside him, Eng Bunker instantly recognized his fate:

    "Then I am going," he cried in anguish. The bed they had shared through the years had become their deathbed, from which neither could escape or rise alone.

    Eng and Chang Bunker -- the world's most famous connected twins, the ones who gave us the term "Siamese twins" -- had died on a cold January night in 1874. They left the world virtually the same way they had entered it 63 years before: simultaneously and not without scandal. Their lives had raised not only eyebrows, but numerous medical and philosophical questions. At least one of these -- Would the death of one precipitate the death of the other? -- was settled with their passing.

    The cause of death -- half of it, that is -- remains a riddle. Chang had suffered a stroke four years before and his health had become frail. He also had been drinking heavily for some time, had recently been injured in a carriage spill and had acquired a bad case of bronchitis. Eng, on the other hand had been in top form, seemingly unaffected by his brother's declining health.

    After their death, one medical camp held that while Chang had died of a blood clot, Eng had died of shock. In other words, believing that the death of his brother would cause his own demise, Eng was scared literally to death. Another theory held that the five-inch-long and three-inch-wide band that connected the twins was a lifeline which, barring immediate surgical intervention, would pass death from one to the other. An autopsy found the blood clot in Chang's brain, but it couldn't resolve the debate over the cause of Eng's death.

    This was not the only controversy surrounding the event. But perhaps these extraordinary lives should be put into context. Refer to the "Guinness Book of World Records," and you find a paltry seven-line paragraph. From this, you may learn that the twins were born near Bangkok, in the isolated kingdom of Siam (which became Thailand in 1939), to Chinese parents they were named "right" and "left," later married sisters from Wilkes County, N.C., and fathered 22 children between them (no pun intended).

    Within this brief biography there are no fewer than three errors. Only one parent was full-blooded Chinese. The mother was half Chinese and half Malay. According to the book, "Famous Thai People," the names most likely described the green and ripe states of a native fruit. As to their offspring, Chang and Eng fathered 21 children -- Eng had 11 and Chang had 10, none of which were twins, connected or otherwise.

    Certainly, their connected lives aroused much attention and rumor. But behind the speculations and suspicions, were the lives of two sometimes charming, sometimes cantankerous men who, saddled with a dual existence, made a life for themselves that many could envy. They did not die childless and alone, drunkard freaks who had worn out the curiosity of a fickle public. They lived with dignity, and were among few celebrities known and seen across America and much of Europe. Even before they married in 1843, they were described by one writer as "the eighth wonder of the world."

    Their birth in 1811 created a sensation. In fact, they might easily have lost their lives soon after. Siam at the time was a feudal society, steeped in superstition. "Anna and the King of Siam" (which was based on the English governess at the Siamese court) was written some 50 years after the twins were born, but the country had not changed much. The king's rule was absolute, as was his unquestioned ownership of his subjects.

    When the twins were born, none of the midwives would touch them for fear of becoming cursed. People saw "the monster" as a bad omen, and when the king heard of it, he condemned the infants to death. Luckily, Chang-Eng's mother refused to abandon them at birth, and the king never acted on his impulsive death sentence. Another threat -- from medical doctors who wanted to separate the twins with everything from saws to red-hot wires -- also was averted.

    The boys adapted to their dual life, learning to run, jump and swim with perfect coordination. Their activity helped stretch their connecting ligament from four to five-and-a-half inches. By age 14, their father having died six years before, the two were selling duck eggs to provide for the family. About this time, Chang-Eng were discovered by Robert Hunter, a British merchant, who convinced their mother that her boys' future and prosperity lay beyond Siam. It took another three years to secure the king's permission for his vassals to leave Siam. Whether she realized it or not, Chang-Eng's mother had all but sold the boys to Hunter for $3,000. Happily, the terms of bondage would expire in two-and-a-half years, upon Chang-Eng's 21st birthday. Unhappily, Chang-Eng's mother only received $500 of the promised sum.

    Hunter and an American partner, Captain Abel Coffin, managed the twins for the next few years, showing them in theaters and concert halls in America and England. Admission was 50 cents a person. The managers drove the twins at an exhausting pace, exhibiting them four hours a day, every day, and touring almost constantly with little rest.

    These exhibitions evolved through the years. At their first showing in Boston, a city of 61,000 residents in 1829, the twins simply stood on stage, demonstrated how they walk and run, and answered questions. Soon, they wowed audiences in Providence, R.I., with somersaults, backflips and a show of strength -- carrying the largest audience member, who weighed in at around 280 pounds. In England, Chang-Eng added a badminton-like game -- battledore and shuttlecock -- to the act.

    While touring, the Siamese twins were treated respectfully for the most part. When their managers proposed touring in France however, the government refused, explaining that such an exhibit "might deprave the minds of children" and cause deformities in unborn children. Of course, there were also occasional stupid or indelicate questions, but the twins tried to maintain their manners and good humor throughout.

    Gradually, though, their patience began to wear thin, especially since they were not always well-treated by their own managers. One incident in particular raised their ire. On the month-long steamer trip to England, Captain Coffin booked first-class passage for himself. Chang-Eng were relegated to salt-beef-and-potatoes "steerage" class, along with the passengers' servants and ship's crew.

    In addition to these annoyances were the financial questions. At first, Chang-Eng received only $10 a month plus expenses. Only after two years was their take increased to $50 a month, still a meager sum, considering that receipts usually averaged $1,000 a month.

    It is perhaps fortunate for the twins that their managers were merely exploitative rather than criminal. It is not entirely unreasonable to imagine a sinister handler making slaves of the twins in this pre-Civil War era, or worse, killing them and selling their bodies to some freak show. As it was, when the twins turned 21, they were able to declare their independence and become their own men.

    This development parallels that of their personalities. Chang-Eng had evolved from foreign boys with no knowledge of English or the outside world to worldly men with a sharp interest in learning and culture. At about this time, they began in their letters to refer to themselves in the plural "we" rather than in the singular. Clearly, they were becoming aware of their importance (without seeming self-important), and had assimilated the idea of individual freedom.

    The twins' intertwined personalities were the subject of much comment in newspaper articles about them. Chang, who was on the twins' own left, was an inch shorter than his brother, but he made up for it in temper. Chang was usually described as the dominant brother, quicker intellectually, but also quicker to anger. Eng was quieter and more retiring, but had wider intellectual interests than Chang. As with most people, these early basic traits hardened somewhat in later life.

    Despite minor personality differences, the twins never ceased to astound their audiences and acquaintances with the apparent harmony and synchronicity of their relationship. With only a handful of exceptions, the two seemed to act as one. They shared common tastes, habits and opinions to an uncanny degree. Some observers even speculated that they must be telepathic, because the two rarely were heard to talk to one another. These observations raised numerous questions and spawned many theories among the medical community.

    Not surprisingly, the twins' medical history is well documented. This is because their touring routine included an inspection by the local medical authorities in every new city they visited. This not only helped counter accusations of fakery, but lent credibility to the shows. The newspaper articles that arose from these examinations provided good publicity as well.

    These evaluations sought to answer one of the questions about the twins that had dogged them since birth: Could they be successfully separated? Opinions varied -- and evolved with increased medical knowledge through the years -- but most of the doctors agreed that the operation would be too risky. Certainly before the Civil War, medical knowledge was not up to the task. Even those who believed that a surgical separation was possible tended to oppose the idea, because the twins seemed perfectly content with their hyphenated existence.

    As to their findings, doctors found the connecting tissue to be tough like cartilage, with a common navel. The two weighed 180 pounds in 1830 (this would increase within ten years to 220), and each had a weak eye -- Chang's left eye and Eng's right.

    Through the years doctors performed numerous experiments on the twins, hoping to determine the extent of their connection. One doctor fed asparagus to Chang and found later that his urine bore the "distinctly . . . peculiar asparagus smell," but that Eng's did not. On the other hand, when one was secretly tickled, the other sometimes reacted with anger, telling the doctor to stop. In yet another experiment, strong pressure was applied to the band, which caused the twins to faint. It is not known whether they passed out from pain or fright.

    After declaring their independence in 1832, the twins continued touring for about seven years. During this time, they met Dr. James Calloway, of Wilkesboro, N.C., who talked them into a much-needed vacation. This proved to be the beginning of a new phase in the twins' lives. They liked the area and the people so much that they decided to retire from the grind of endless touring and settle down.

    North Carolina in 1839 had been in the Union about 50 years, but it was one of the country's least developed, sparsely populated and backward states. Its economy was almost entirely agricultural -- the main products being tobacco, cotton and moonshine -- schools, healthcare and newspapers were poor and extremely limited, and disputes were still being resolved by duels. But after 10 years in the public eye, Chang-Eng longed for a secluded, rural life.

    Financially comfortable but unable to retire from work entirely, the two soon took up farming, eventually accumulating some 1,000 acres. They also applied for and received U.S. citizenship (adopting the last name Bunker) and took up an interest in two Wilkesboro sisters, Adelaide and Sarah (Sally) Yates.

    Chang was the first to fall in love, and he chose Addie, who was a year younger than her 18-year-old sister. Eng and Sally seem to have been drawn into the connection by necessity. Certainly, it would have been difficult for either Chang or Eng alone to marry -- after all, three's a crowd, and people will talk. And given the fact that privacy would necessarily be in short supply in any dual marriage, having wives who were intimately familiar with one another might be an ideal solution. In any case, Sally was the last to commit to the arrangement. Last of the foursome, that is. When townspeople and the girls' parents got wind of the business, rocks and threats flew freely, and numerous objections were raised.

    The townspeople were aghast that two of the county's most sought-after belles should be destined to enter an "unholy alliance" with the twins. Even one of Chang-Eng's closest friends considered the idea of marriage for the twins "too bizarre" to contemplate, and "an invitation to disaster."

    The parents forbade the union at first, but eventually relented after learning that the lovebirds planned to elope. At this point, the difficulties of their prospective four-way marriage convinced Chang-Eng to risk a surgical separation. The twins secretly traveled to Philadelphia, where surgeons awaited to attempt the risky operation. But before the knife could be employed, Sally and Adelaide confronted them, and with much pleading, weeping and hysteria, brought their future husbands home intact.

    After the wedding, which was held at the Yates home in 1843, the newlyweds retired to the house Chang-Eng had built at Trap Hill, 12 miles northeast of Wilkesboro. Soon, however, the house with its double-double bed proved to be too cramped.

    Not quite a year after their marriage, Sally had delivered a baby girl, and six days later, Addie had also given birth to a girl. The following year saw two more arrivals, this time eight days apart. A new house near Mount Airy was bought and occupied, and in short order more children arrived.

    As of 1860, Addie had brought seven children into the world and Sally had had nine.

    By that time, though, Addie was living in another house, which Chang-Eng had bought in 1852. This was not only because of the hordes of children, but because the now-hefty wives were beginning to bicker. This unpleasantness no doubt exacerbated the growing contentiousness between Chang and Eng. Heated arguments became more common and for only the second or third time in their lives, the two had come to blows. Although the exact cause of this violent dispute is not known, part of the problem was Eng's fondness for all-night poker games and Chang's fondness for the bottle.

    So the wives lived apart, and Chang-Eng followed a strict regimen of three days at one house and three at the other, with the "guest" brother submitting to his "host" brother's every whim.

    This partial separation helped relieve some pressures, but it created an unforeseen disparity that would permanently alter the two families' fortunes. When they divvied up their property, Chang received the lion's share of land. In return, Eng kept more slaves. Although Eng wasn't especially happy with the arrangement, his assets actually exceeded Chang's $16,000 by some $3,000. This at a time when a slave could be bought for $600.

    During this antebellum period, the financial pressures of their huge and growing families had twice brought the twins out of retirement from touring, once in 1849 and again in 1853. By 1860, money problems again forced them on the road, this time in the direction of California, the decade-old 31st state. When they returned from their successful four-month tour, they found to a country on the verge of war. South Carolina had voted to secede just two months before.

    The Civil War devastated the twins' fortunes. At war's end, Chang was worth only $6,700. Eng, who had owned roughly twice as many slaves as his brother, was hit even harder. He came out of the war with only $2,600 in assets.

    To this day, some family members contend that Chang knew at the time that Lincoln planned to free the slaves, but this hardly seems plausible. According to at least one biographer, though, Addie had pressed for land over slaves during the property division. In any case, the disparity would have far-reaching consequences, since modern-day descendants of Eng consider themselves "the poor side" of the family.

    Two more American tours followed, but they were not very rewarding. In 1868, the twins left North Carolina with two of their daughters for a tour of England and Europe. A second reason for the trip abroad was to try once again for a surgical separation. Although two medical exams left them little hope for separation, the tour was a great success. But war between France and Prussia in 1870 forced them to return home, and it was on the ship bound for America that Chang suffered his stroke, partially paralyzing his right side.

    The twins' last years brought many quarrels, one of which blew up, ending with Chang threatening Eng with a knife. Exasperated, the two went to their family doctor demanding immediate separation. Calmly, the surgeon laid out his instruments, turned to his patients and asked: "Which would you prefer, that I . . . sever the flesh that connects you or cut off your heads? One will produce just about the same results as the other." This was sufficient to cool the twins' tempers.

    The good doctor did promise to perform the requested operation immediately upon the death of either one of the brothers. Sadly, he was not on hand when Chang died.

    The scandal following the death of Chang-Eng was a function of too much curiosity, attention and imagination. So famous were the twins that their death was front-page headline news in New York City and beyond. Hoping to avert any chance of some body-snatcher digging up the twins and selling them for display, the twins' doctor advised the widows to sell the corpse for either display or medical study. Sally and Addie found both ideas repulsive, but decided to wait for the eldest Bunker son to return from San Francisco. This two-week delay left plenty of time for wagging tongues to do their unsavory business.

    In the end, the twins were autopsied -- with no payment made to the family -- and buried. For security reasons, Chang-Eng were interred first in the basement and later in the front yard near Chang's house. Finally, when Adelaide died in 1917, the grave was moved to White Plains Baptist Church, which Chang-Eng had helped build. Sally, though she is included on the common gravestone, had been buried separately on Eng's farm. She, at least, finally found some privacy.

    The autopsy made three points on the separation question: Separation as children might have been wise no such operation would have been worth the risk later in life and the operation should have been performed immediately upon Chang's death. In 1897, the American Medical Association weighed in for a final judgment: Given advances in the use of antiseptics, had the twins lived at that time, they could have been successfully separated.

    Today, a historical marker and gravestone stand on either side of the church in White Plains. Chang's Mount Airy home is occupied by the husband of Chang's granddaughter, Adelaide (one of Albert's daughters). Eng's house burned in 1956, but another house was built on the site. It is still in the family.

    Literature about the twins includes poems, plays, and a Mark Twain story, "The Siamese Twins," in which they supposedly fight on opposing sides in the Civil War and even take each other prisoner. More recently, Garrison Keillor worked a fanciful monologue drawn from the twins' lives into his "News From Lake Wobegon" segment of A Prairie Home Companion.

    Thankfully, there is little in the way of scandal to disturb the twins' rest today.


    Let’s Cook History: The Medieval Feast (Medieval Documentary) | Timeline

    In contrast with the common representation of the middle ages as a gloomy era haunted with famine, this episode provides a more positive view on medieval cuisine. Throughout Europe, medieval kitchens were often filled with innovative, healthy and savory dishes. Enjoy the elaborate information on the preparation of bread, meat, wine and herbs consumed in castles, monasteries and the growing cities..
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    Contents

    The earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning 'sacred news'. [36] By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. [37]

    During the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the city was referred to as Punnaka and Punyapur, whilst the copper plates of 758 and 768 CE show that the Yadava dynasty had renamed the city Punakavishaya and Punya Vishaya. Vishaya means land and Punaka and Punya mean holy. The city was known as Kasbe Pune when under the command of Maratha king Shivaji's father, Shahaji Raje Bhosale. The only divergent naming was when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb renamed the city Muhiyabad some time between 1703 and 1705 in memory of his great-grandson Muhi-ul-Milan, who died there. But the name was erased soon after Aurangzeb's death. [38] It became Poona in English during British rule in 1857 and changed to Pune in 1978.

    Early and medieval period Edit

    Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. [39] Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.

    Bhosale Jagir and the Maratha Empire Edit

    Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi (Ahmadnagar Sultanate). [40] Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at the fort of Shivneri, about 90 km from Pune. [41] It changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1680 to 1705.

    After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He also developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order. [42] The Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. [36] Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal. His mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity (Gramadevata) of the city. [43]

    From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. [21] [44] But the name was erased soon after Aurangzeb's death.

    Peshwa rule Edit

    In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (prime minister) of the Maratha Empire by Shahu I, the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire. [46] As the Peshwa, Bajirao moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. [47] [48] He also commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city. [49] [50] The aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. [51]

    The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill [52] and many Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna, and Ganesh temples. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. [48] [53] Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Poona, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. [54]

    Historian Govind Sakharam Sardesai lists 163 prominent families that held high ranks and played significant roles in politics, military, and finance in 18th century Pune. Of these 163 families, a majority(80) were Deshastha Brahmins, 46 were Chitpawan, 15 were Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu(CKP) whereas Karhade Brahmin and Saraswat accounted for 11 families each. [55]

    British rule (1818–1947) Edit

    The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelled Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). [ citation needed ] The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. [56] [57] [58]

    The city of Pune was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A railway line from Bombay to the city opened in 1858, run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR). [59] [60] Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj. [ citation needed ]

    Centre of social reform and nationalism Edit

    Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social reform led by Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor. [61] Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned at the Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace between 1942 and 1944, where both his wife Kasturba Gandhi and aide Mahadev Desai died. [62]

    Pune since Indian independence Edit

    After Indian independence from the British in 1947, Pune saw enormous growth transforming it into a modern metropolis. The Poona Municipal Council was reorganised to form the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) in 1950. [63] The education sector in the city continued its growth in the post-independence era with the establishment of the University of Pune (now, Savitribai Phule Pune University) in 1949, the National Chemical Laboratory in 1950 and the National Defence Academy in 1955. [64] [65] [66]

    The establishment of Hindustan Antibiotics in 1954 marked the beginning of industrial development in the Hadapsar, Bhosari, and Pimpri areas. [67] [68] MIDC provided the necessary infrastructure for new businesses to set up operations. [69] In the 1970s, several engineering companies were set up in the city, allowing it to vie with Chennai. [70] [71] In the 1990s, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. IT parks were established in Aundh, Viman Nagar, Hinjawadi, Wagholi, Kharadi and Balewadi-Baner region. As a result, the city saw a huge influx of people to the city due to opportunities offered by the manufacturing, and lately, the software industries.

    The breach in the Panshet dam and the resulting flood of 1961 led to severe damage and destruction of housing close to the river banks. [72] The mishap spurred the development of new suburbs and housing complexes. [73] To integrate urban planning, the Pune Metropolitan Region was defined in 1967 covering the area under PMC, the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, the three cantonments and the surrounding villages. [74]

    In 1998 work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began it was completed in 2001. [75] In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged development in the northwest region of the city. [76] On 13 February 2010 a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood in eastern Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. [77] [78] [79] Evidence suggested that the Indian Mujahideen terrorist group carried out the attack. [80]

    Pune is situated at approximately 18° 32" north latitude and 73° 51" east longitude. The city's total area is 15.642 sq. km. [81] By road Pune is 1,173 km (729 mi) south of Delhi, 734 km (456 mi) north of Bangalore, 570 km (350 mi) north-west of Hyderabad and 149 km (93 mi) south-east of Mumbai.

    Pune lies on the western margin of the Deccan plateau, at an altitude of 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with Vetal Hill rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. The Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet).

    The old city of Pune is at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana, a tributary of Mula river and Indrayani river, a tributary of the Bhima river, traverse the northwest suburbs of Pune.

    Cityscape Edit

    The modern city of Pune has many distinct neighbourhoods. These include the numerous peths of the old city on the eastern bank of the Mutha river, the cantonment areas of Khadki and Pune Camp established by the British, and numerous suburbs. [68] The industrial growth in the Pimpri, Chinchwad and nearby areas allowed these areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad. [69] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87]

    The Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR), initially defined in 1967, has grown to 7,256 km 2 made up of the ten talukas of the Pune district. [88] The twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad along with the three cantonment areas of Pune, Khadki, and Dehu Road form the urban core of the PMR, which also includes seven municipal councils and 842 villages. [88] [89] [90]

    Rapid industrialisation since the 1960s has led to large influx of people to the city. Housing supply has not kept pace with demand, causing the number of slum dwellings to increase. [91] Approximately 36% of the population lives in 486 slum areas. Of these, 45% slum households do not have in-house toilet facilities and 10% do not have electricity. One third of the slums are on mixed ownership land. The living conditions in slums varies considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal) and in how far non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community organisations (CBOs) and government agencies are involved and committed to improving local living conditions. [92]

    Since the 1990s a number of landmark integrated townships and gated communities have been developed in Pune such as Magarpatta, Nanded city, Amanora, Blue Ridge, Life Republic and Lavasa. [93] They also offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure. According to the PMC, six townships with up to 15,000 housing units existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more were in the planning process. [92]

    The Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second highest in India after Hyderabad at 144. [94] The same source highlights Pune as being among evolving business centres and as one of nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies". [95] The 2017 Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) report, released by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune as the best governed of 23 major cities. [96]

    Peths in Pune Edit

    Peth is a general term in the Marathi language for a locality in Pune. Seventeen peths are located in Pune, which today constitute the old city of Pune. Most were established during the Maratha empire era under the Maratha and Peshwa rule of the city in the 18th century, before the arrival of the British. [97] Seven of them are named after the days of the week in Marathi, and the day of the week on which traders and craftsmen in these peths mainly conducted business corresponded to the day after which each is named. Other peths are named after their respective founders. Pune includes seventeen peths: Ghorpade Peth, Somwar Peth, Mangalwar Peth, Budhwar Peth, Guruwar Peth, Shukrawar Peth, Shaniwar Peth, Raviwar Peth, Kasba Peth, Bhawani Peth, Ganj Peth, Nana Peth, Ganesh Peth, Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth, Navi Peth.

    Climate Edit

    Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (type BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (type Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 20 and 28 °C (68 and 82 °F). [98] Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to mid-June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month in Pune is May. The city often has heavy dusty winds in May, with humidity remaining high. Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897. [99]

    The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of.

    For most of December and January the daytime temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperatures are below 9 °C (48 °F), often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935.

    Climate data for Pune (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Record high °C (°F) 35.3
    (95.5)
    38.9
    (102.0)
    42.8
    (109.0)
    43.3
    (109.9)
    43.3
    (109.9)
    41.7
    (107.1)
    36.0
    (96.8)
    35.0
    (95.0)
    36.1
    (97.0)
    37.8
    (100.0)
    36.1
    (97.0)
    35.0
    (95.0)
    43.3
    (109.9)
    Average high °C (°F) 29.8
    (85.6)
    32.1
    (89.8)
    35.6
    (96.1)
    37.6
    (99.7)
    36.9
    (98.4)
    31.9
    (89.4)
    28.3
    (82.9)
    27.6
    (81.7)
    29.4
    (84.9)
    31.5
    (88.7)
    30.4
    (86.7)
    29.2
    (84.6)
    31.7
    (89.1)
    Average low °C (°F) 11.2
    (52.2)
    12.2
    (54.0)
    15.7
    (60.3)
    19.6
    (67.3)
    22.6
    (72.7)
    23.1
    (73.6)
    22.4
    (72.3)
    21.7
    (71.1)
    20.9
    (69.6)
    18.4
    (65.1)
    14.5
    (58.1)
    11.5
    (52.7)
    17.8
    (64.0)
    Record low °C (°F) 1.7
    (35.1)
    3.9
    (39.0)
    7.2
    (45.0)
    10.6
    (51.1)
    13.8
    (56.8)
    17.0
    (62.6)
    18.9
    (66.0)
    17.2
    (63.0)
    13.2
    (55.8)
    9.4
    (48.9)
    4.6
    (40.3)
    3.3
    (37.9)
    1.7
    (35.1)
    Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.1
    (0.04)
    0.3
    (0.01)
    2.2
    (0.09)
    8.5
    (0.33)
    26.8
    (1.06)
    173.4
    (6.83)
    181.4
    (7.14)
    145.2
    (5.72)
    146.1
    (5.75)
    86.3
    (3.40)
    25.0
    (0.98)
    7.0
    (0.28)
    803.0
    (31.61)
    Average rainy days 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.9 9.5 12.4 9.8 8.0 4.4 1.2 0.3 48.7
    Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 34 26 21 24 37 66 76 79 73 53 43 39 47
    Mean monthly sunshine hours 294.5 282.5 300.7 303.0 313.1 183.0 114.7 111.6 177.0 244.9 264.0 279.0 2,868
    Mean daily sunshine hours 9.5 10.0 9.7 10.1 10.1 6.1 3.7 3.6 5.9 7.9 8.8 9.0 7.9
    Source: India Meteorological Department [100] [101] [102]

    Seismology Edit

    Pune is 100 km (62 mi) north of the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam. [103] [104] The India Meteorological Department has assessed this area as being in Zone 3, on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes. [105] [106] Pune has experienced some moderate – and many low – intensity earthquakes in its history.

    The city has a population of 3,124,458 while 5,057,709 people reside in the Pune Urban Agglomeration as of the 2011 census [update] . [107] The latter was c. 4,485,000 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001. [108]

    Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India. The number of people migrating to Pune rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. [109] The sharp increase in population during the decade 1991–2001 led to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. [110] The top five source areas of migrants are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947. [111] Initially they settled in the Pimpri area, which is still home to a large number of Sindhi people. However, they are also present in other parts of the city. [112] As agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration of the erstwhile rural peoples now accounts for 70 percent of the population growth. [113] [114]

    Marathi is the official and most spoken language. The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15% in 2011 compared to 80.45% in 2001. [115]

    Religion Edit

    Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Other religions with a significant presence include Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism. [116]

    Of the many Hindu temples in the city, the Parvati temple complex on Parvati Hill and at least 250 others date back to the 18th century. [117] These temples were commissioned by the Peshwas, who ruled the city at the time, and are dedicated to various deities including Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh. [118] [119] [120] [121] The historic temples of Kasba Ganapati, the Tambadi (Red) Jogeshwari are considered the guardian deities of the city. [122] [123] Dagdusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple is the richest Ganesh temple in Pune. Pune has two of the most important pilgrimage centres of the Varkari sect of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra, namely Alandi where the samadhi of 13th century Saint Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where the 17th century Saint Tukaram lived. Every year in the Hindu month of Ashadh (June/July), the Paduka (symbolic sandals) of these saints are carried in a pilgrimage, the Pandharpur Vari, to meet Vithoba. The procession makes a stopover in the city on its way to Pandharpur attracting hundreds of thousands of Varkaris and devotees. Other important Hindu pilgrimage sites in PMR or the district include Jejuri, and five of Ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Shrutisagar Ashram houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy.

    Prominent mosques include Chand Tara Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five perfect masters, has a shrine (Dargah) erected in her honour under a neem tree in Pune Camp. [124] [125]

    The city has several churches dedicated to different Christian denominations including St. Anthony's Shrine, Dapodi Church, etc. St. Patrick's Cathedral built in 1850 is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Poona. Pune has Jain temples dating back to the Peshwa era. At present, there are more than one hundred Jain temples in PMR with the one at Katraj being the largest. [126] Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras, with Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar in Pune Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha in Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. The 19th-century Ohel David Synagogue, known locally as Lal Deval, is said to be one of the largest synagogues in Asia outside Israel. [127] [128] The Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary is a prominent Zoroastrian temple.

    Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Osho, formerly the self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh, lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in Koregaon Park and attracts visitors from over a hundred countries. The meditation resort organises music and meditation festival every year during monsoon, known as Osho Monsoon Festival. Number of well known artists around the world participates in the event. [129]

    Pune has the fifth largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country. [130] [131] The key sectors of the local economy are education, manufacturing and information technology (IT).

    Pune has historically been known as a center for higher education and has been referred to as the educational capital of India. In 2016, it was reported that nearly 500,000 students from across India and abroad study in Pune at nine universities and more than a hundred educational institutes. [132] [133]

    The Kirloskar Group came to Pune in 1945 when Kirloskar Brothers Ltd setup Kirloskar Oil Engines, India's largest diesel engine company, at Khadki. [134] [135] The group has several group companies in Pune including Kirloskar Pneumatics and the groups flagship company Kirloskar Brothers Limited, one of India's largest manufacturers and exporters of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia. [136] [137] Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Skoda cars, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors, Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities in Chakan near Pune, leading The Independent to describe Chakan, Pune as India's "Motor City". [138] According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses in Pune. [139] [140] Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume, has a manufacturing plant located in Pune. [141] In 2014-15, the manufacturing sector provided employment to over 500,000 people. [142]

    The Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi is a ₹ 60,000 crore (US$8.9 billion) project by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). [143] [144] The IT Park encompasses an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km 2 ) and is home to over 800 IT companies of all sizes. [145] [142] Besides Hinjawadi, IT companies are also located at Magarpatta, Kharadi and several other parts of the city. As of 2017, the IT sector employs more than 300,000 people. [145] [142]

    Pune has also emerged as a new hub for tech startups in India. [146] [147] [148] NASSCOM, in association with MIDC, has started a co-working space for city based startups under its 10,000 startups initiative at Kharadi MIDC. [149] Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of Small Industries Development Bank of India, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune. [150] [151]

    The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to be boosted since the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) opened in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC boasts a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m 2 (139,931 sq ft). It has seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project was developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority. [152]

    Architecture Edit

    Historical attractions include the 8th century rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, the 18th century Shaniwarwada, the 19th century Aga Khan Palace, Lal Mahal and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the great Maratha general, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia). [153] The old city had many residential buildings with courtyards called Wada. However, many of these have been demolished and replaced by modern buildings. A renowned wada in Pune is the last residential palace of the Peshwa called Vishrambaug Wada which is currently being renovated by the city corporation. [154] The city is also known for its British Raj bungalow architecture and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment from the early 20th century. Landmark architectural works by Christopher Charles Benninger surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.

    Museums, parks and zoos Edit

    Museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Industrial Museum, Deccan college museum of Maratha history, [155] Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum this includes a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train. The Aga Khan Palace, where Mahatma Gandhi was interned during the Quit India movement, has a memorial dedicated to his wife, Kasturba Gandhi who died here during the internment.

    Parks and green spaces in the city include the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Gardens, and Bund Garden . The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. [156] The Hanuman hill, Vetal hill, and Taljai Hills are protected nature reserves on hills within the city limits.

    The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located in Katraj. [157] The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.

    Performing arts Edit

    Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. [158] [159] [160]

    Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest indoor theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of approximately 45,000. [161] The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Sawai Gandharva. [162] The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ (lit. Diwali dawn) originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali. [163]

    Festivals Edit

    Ganeshotsav is widely and publicly celebrated in Pune. Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak started the public celebration of the festival as a means to circumvent the colonial British government ban on Hindu gatherings through its anti-public assembly legislation in 1892. [164] [165] Pandals with Ganesh idols are erected all across Pune. Many ganesh mandals (local organisations) display live or figurine shows called Dekhava during the festival. These shows often carry socially relevant messages. Processions of Ganpati are accompanied by Dhol-Tasha pathaks (groups who play Dhol-Tasha percussion instruments). Involvement of these pathaks has become a cultural identity of Pune with there being over 150 such groups operating in and around Pune. Jnana Prabodhini, a social organisation in Pune is widely accredited for founding the tradition of Dhol-Tasha pathaks [166]

    As a matter of historic interest, early on, the game of badminton was also known as Poona or Poonah after the then British garrison town of Poona where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. (Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. "Battledore" was an older term for "racquet".) [167] [168]

    Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and chess. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in Balewadi is the venue for wrestling and other traditional sports. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. Pune has basketball courts at the Deccan Gymkhana and at Fergusson College. [169] Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in Sahakarnagar, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. [170] Other prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, the Poona Golf Club and the Poona Cricket Club.

    The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The National Games of 1994 and the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in the city at the Balewadi Stadium. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The 37,000 seating capacity Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium has hosted international cricket – T20s, One Day Internationals, and a test match. [171] The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is a two- or three-day event with activities including cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. [172] Pune Race Course was built in 1830 on 118.5 acres (0.480 km 2 ) of land and is managed by the Royal Western India Turf Club. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. The racing season is from July to October every year and includes major racing events the Pune Derby, the RWITC Invitational, the Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup. [173] The city has also hosted the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.

    Teams Edit

    The Maharashtra cricket team, one of the three teams of the Maharashtra Cricket Association that compete in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, is based in the city. Pune Warriors India (2011-2014) and Rising Pune Supergiant (2016-2017) were the two teams based in Pune to play in the Indian Premier League. [174] Poona District Football Association (PDFA) was established in 1972 and currently has more than 100 registered teams. [175] FC Pune City was an Indian Super League football club in Pune. Established in 2014, FC Pune City became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated at all levels of professional football Senior Team (ISL), U-18 Team (Elite league), U- 16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women's Team. [176] The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up in the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season. Pune also has an American football franchise, called the Pune Marathas, which began playing in the inaugural season of the Elite Football League of India in 2011 and which plays at the Balewadi Stadium. [177] [178]

    Civic administration Edit

    Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) is the civic body responsible for local government. It comprises two branches, the executive branch headed by the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Government of Maharashtra, and an elected deliberative branch, the general body, headed by the Mayor of Pune. [179] Municipal elections are held every five years to elect councillors, commonly known as "corporators", who form the general body. The current general body of the PMC elected in February 2017 has 162 corporators representing 41 multi-member wards (39 with 4 corporators each and 2 with 3 each). [180] The general body, in turn, elects the mayor and the deputy mayor. The mayor has a ceremonial role as the first citizen and ambassador of the city while the actual executive power lies with the municipal commissioner. For policy deliberations, corporators form several committees. Perhaps the most important of these is the 16-member Standing Committee, half of whose members retire every year. [181] The Standing Committee and the 15 ward committees are in charge of financial approvals. [179] PMC was ranked 8th out of 21 Indian cities for best governance and administrative practices in 2014. It scored 3.5 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3. [182]

    The Pune City Police Department is the law enforcement agency for the twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad. It is a division of the Maharashtra Police and is headed by the Police Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police Department reports to the State Ministry of Home Affairs. A separate police commissionerate was announced for Pimpri-Chinchwad in April 2018 to be carved out of Pune Police Department. [183] [184] The new commissionerate took charge on 15 August 2018. [185] [186]

    Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) was formed on 31 March 2015 and is responsible for the integrated development of the PMR. [187] Currently its jurisdiction extends over 7,256.46 km 2 (2,802 sq mi) and includes two municipal corporations, three cantonment boards, seven municipal councils, 13 census towns and 842 villages. [88] [90]

    Utility services Edit

    The PMC supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Khadakwasla Reservoir. There are five other reservoirs in the area that supply water to the city and the greater metropolitan area. [188]

    The city lacks the capacity to treat all the sewage it generates, which leads to the Mutha river containing only sewage outside the monsoon months. [189] In 2009 only 65% of sewage generated was treated before being discharged into the rivers. [188] PMC is also responsible for collecting solid waste. Around 1,600 tons of solid waste is generated in Pune each day. The waste consists of 53% organic, compostable material and 47% inorganic material, of which around half is recyclable. The unrecovered solid waste is transported to the dumping grounds in Urali devachi. [190]

    The state owned Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited supplies electricity to the city. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), owned by the central government, as well as private enterprises such as Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, and Virgin Mobile, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city. [191] : 25–26 : 179

    Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU formerly University of Pune), which is the largest University in the country based on total number of affiliated colleges. [192] Higher education institutes attract international students mainly from the Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, and United Arab Emirates, and also African countries such as Ethiopia and Kenya. [193] Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. [194] Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française. Several colleges in Pune have student exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. [195]

    Primary and secondary education Edit

    The PMC runs 297 primary schools and 30 secondary and higher secondary schools. [196] [197] While it is mandatory for the PMC to provide primary education under state law, secondary education is an optional duty. [197] [198] [199] In the rural and suburban areas of the PMR, public primary schools are run by the Pune Zilla Parishad. Private schools are run by education trusts and are required to undergo mandatory inspection by the concerned authorities. Private schools are eligible for financial aid from the state government. [200] Public schools are affiliated to the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (State Board). The language of instruction in public schools is primarily Marathi, although the PMC also runs Urdu, English and Kannada medium schools. [197] [201] [202] Along with these languages, private schools also offer instruction in Hindi and Gujarati. [203] Private schools vary in their choice of curriculum and may follow the State Board or one of the two central boards of education, the CBSE or CISCE. [204] [205]

    Jnana Prabodhini Prashala, located in Sadashiv Peth, is the first school for intellectually gifted and talented students in India. [206]

    Tertiary education Edit

    Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the SPPU (Savitribai Phule Pune University). Nine other universities have also been established in the city. [207] Pune also hosts the Military Intelligence Training School which offers diploma courses in counter intelligence, combat intelligence, aerial imagery and interpretation, among others. [208]

    The College of Engineering Pune, an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who was also responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. [209] The Indian Law Society's (ILS) Law College is one of the top ten law schools in India. [210] The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and B. J. Medical College are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India. [211] The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road. The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the SPPU campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of gurukul and formal education systems. [212]

    Symbiosis International University operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, including the Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, the Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, the Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development, the Symbiosis Law School and the Symbiosis Institute of International Business. They are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country. [213] [214] The Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology. [215]

    Research Institutes Edit

    Pune is home to a number of governmental and non-governmental research institutes focusing on a wide range of subject areas from the humanities to the sciences. The Ministry of Defence also runs a number of defence related education, training and research establishments in and around the city. Major research centers include:

      (ARI) (ARDE) (AFMC) (AIT) (ARAI) (BORI) (CIRT) [216] (CW&PRS) (C-DAC) [217] (DRDO) (DIAT) [218] (NDA) (HEMRL) (IISER, Pune) (IITM) (IUCAA) (NCCS) (NCRA) (NCL) (NIC) (NIBM) (NICMAR) (NIV) (NSL) (NIA) (R&DE(E)) (TRDDC)

    A number of Marathi-language newspapers from the British era continued publishing decades after independence. These included Kesari, Tarun Bharat, Prabhat andSakal. [219] Sakal has remained the most popular Marathi daily. [220] [221] Kesari is now only published as an online newspaper. Mumbai based Maharashtra Times, Loksatta and Lokmat have all introduced Pune based editions in the last fifteen years. The Mumbai-based popular English newspaper the Indian Express has a Pune edition. Its rival the Times of India introduced a tabloid called Pune Mirror in 2008. Mid Day, Daily News and Analysis and Sakaal Times are other local English newspapers. The English-language newspaper The Hindu has launched [ when? ] a Pune edition covering local as well as national news. [ citation needed ]

    The government owned All India Radio (AIR) has been broadcasting from Pune since 1953. [222] Savitribai Phule Pune University broadcasts programmes focusing on its different departments and student welfare schemes on its own FM radio channel called Vidyavani. [223] A number of commercial FM channels are also received in the city. [224] The city receives almost all of the television channels in India including broadcast, cable and direct-to-home TV.

    Public transport Edit

    Public transport in Pune includes Pune Suburban Railway, bus services operated by PMPML and auto rickshaws. Uber and Ola Cabs also operate in the city. Construction of Pune Metro, an urban mass rapid transit system, is underway as of 2018. [225]

    Rail Edit

    Bus service Edit

    Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. The project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little patronage from the local citizenry. [228] Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from stations in Wakdewadi, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India. [229] In January 2019, Pune became the first Indian city to adopt e-buses and Bhekrai Nagar the country's first all electric bus depot. As of November 2019, up to 133 electric vehicles (EVs) have been deployed across the city in the first phase of its e-bus programme. [230] The user's group is Pune Bus Pravasi Sangh.

    Metro Edit

    Pune Metro, a mass rapid transit system, is under construction and is expected to be operational by 2021. [231] [232] The detailed project report was prepared for the initial two lines by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation which was approved by the State government in 2012 and by the central government in December 2016. [233] [234] [235] Two lines, Line 1 from Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corportion Building to Swargate and Line 2 from Ramwadi to Vanaz, with a combined length of 31.25 kilometres (19.42 mi), are being constructed by MahaMetro, a 50:50 joint venture of the State and central governments. [236] Line 1 will run underground between Swargate and Range Hills be and elevated until Pimpri Chinchwad. Line 2 will be completely elevated and will intersect Line 1 at the Civil Court interchange station in Shivajinagar. [237]

    Line 3 between Hinjawadi and Civil Court, Shivajinagar was approved by the state and central governments in January and March 2018, respectively. [238] [239] This 23.3-km line is being implemented by PMRDA on a public-private partnership basis. [240]

    Road transport Edit

    Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian and state highways. National Highway 48 connects it to Mumbai and Bangalore, National Highway 65 connects it to Hyderabad and National Highway 60 connects it to Nashik. State Highway 27 connect Pune to Ahmednagar.

    The Mumbai Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. Only four wheeled vehicles are allowed on it. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to a little over two hours. A ring road is planned around the city. [241] [242] [243]

    Personal transport Edit

    Once known as the "cycle city of India", Pune has experienced a rapid growth in the number of motorised two wheelers replacing the bicycle. [244] In 2005 the city was reported to have one million two wheelers. The report also stated that the increase in vehicular and industrial activity had led to a 10-fold increase in particulate pollution in some areas of the city. [245] In 2018 the number of vehicles in the city has exceeded its population with 3.62 million total vehicles, 2.70 million being two wheelers. [246] [247] In the fiscal year 2017–18 alone 300,000 new vehicles were registered in the city, two-thirds of them two wheelers. [248]

    A revival of cycling in Pune with 130 kilometres (81 mi) of cycle tracks built was attempted as a part of the BRT system under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in 2004. However, a 2011 report revealed that only 88 kilometres (55 mi) of tracks were actually built and most were unusable at the time of the report. [249] [250] Under the Smart Cities Mission, app based cycle sharing schemes have been launched in the city since late 2017. [251] [252] [253] The PMC has devised the Pune Cycle Plan with 470 kilometres (290 mi) of cycle tracks planned. [254] [255] [256] Cycles are also seen as a possible way of improving last mile connectivity for the metro system. [257]

    Air Edit

    Pune International Airport at Lohegaon is one of the busiest airports in India. The airport is operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. [258] In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, the airport has international direct flights to Dubai, operated by Air India Express, [259] and SpiceJet. Pune International Airport at Lohegaon was ranked third best in the category of 5-15 million passengers by Airport Service Quality. [260]

    A new international airport has been proposed, due to the limited capacity of the existing airport. A location in the Chakan-Rajgurunagar area was chosen for the airport, [261] [262] but non-availability of land delayed the project for over a decade. [263] In September 2016 the location was changed to Purandar, c. 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the city. [264] [265] The proposed airport in Purandar will be spread over 2,400 hectares. Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje Airport is proposed to serve the city of Pune. The greenfield airport will be located near the villages of Ambodi, Sonori, Kumbharvalan, Ekhatpur-Munjawadi, Khanwadi, Pargaon Memane, Rajewadi, Aamble, Tekwadi, Vanpuri, Udachiwadi, Singapur near Saswad and Jejuri in Purandar taluka of Pune District. [ citation needed ]

    Healthcare in the PMR is provided by private and public facilities. Primary care is provided by practitioners of western as well as traditional alternative medicine (i.e.Ayurved, Homeopathy and Unani). For minor and chronic ailments, people in the region have preference for practitioners of the traditional medicine. [266]

    The PMR is served by three government hospitals: Sassoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr Ambedkar Hospital. There are also a number of private hospitals such as Ranka Hospital, Sahyadri, Jahangir Nursing Home, Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall, Naidu Hospital [267] and Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital. [268]

    World Trade Center (WTC) Pune is a 1.6 million sq. ft. infrastructure to foster international trade. WTC Pune is part of the World Trade Centers Association. [269] [270]


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