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Neolithic Tools and Weapons
We often make the mistake of seeing our ancestors as primitive. Especially
when we think of the ancestors from before the dawn of metal use, 4000 or
so years ago. However, we really should not underestimate these people. Proof
of this can be found in the long tradition of stone, wood and bone tool use
that predates metalurgy and which has left us a rich heritage worthy of examination.
From the smallest bladelet to the biggest hand axe, the neolithic peoples
were remarkably efficient at making stone tools.
The first thing to note about stone tools is that similar early metal tools
are actually not much of an improvement. A sharp flint blade may blunt quickly,
but when fresh it is several hundred times sharper than a metal edge. Metalurgy
was a quantum leap because it allowed for the development, of new tools, but
reconstructive archaeology from modern flint knappers shows us that the new
knives and axes were not that much more impressive than the old tools.
The neolithic is a translation of ‘new stone age’ but a better term for the
period would have been the ‘wood’ age. The shaping and development of of wooden
tools was central to neolithic life. However, because it doesn’t survive so
well in the archaeological record we are apt to forget its significance. A
wooden club was most likely the favoured close combat weapon of the time,
just as many native american tribes and australian aborigines favoured wooden
battle weapons over stone until recent times.
Of course, the bow and arrow was in use in the neolithic, and the chance
discovery of Otzi in the alps in the 1980’s gave us the opportunity to see
in detail the perfectly preserved hunting kit of a stone age man.
Other weapons we commonly find are axe heads and flint points which were likely to have been hafted onto a wooden handle. Again Otzi showed us that the Archaeologists were right on the money. The short dagger found amongst his possessions is a flint knife embedded into a wooden haft.
What is Flint?
Flint is a hard, tough chemical or biochemical sedimentary rock that breaks with a conchoidal fracture. It is a form of microcrystalline quartz that is typically called "chert" by geologists.
Flint often forms as nodules in sedimentary rocks such as chalk and marine limestones. The nodules can be dispersed randomly throughout the rock unit but are often concentrated in distinct layers. Some rock units form through the accumulation of siliceous skeletal material. These can recrystallize to form a layer of bedded flint.
Is this Rock Flint? Chert? or Jasper?
Flint is highly resistant to weathering and is often found as pebbles or cobbles along streams and beaches. Early people who used flint to make tools often prospected these areas to find nicely shaped pieces of flint for making specific tools.
Flintknapping: Prehistoric people became highly skilled at flintknapping, a method of shaping flint into useful objects such as drills, arrowheads, knife blades, and spearheads. National Park Service image.
SUPERB RARE FLINT NEOLITHIC TRANCHET AXE FROM PREHISTORIC SWEDEN *N196
This Neolithic flint tranchet axe is one of the nicest made examples of ANY location we have seen but coming from Sweden makes it especially scarce and desirable. To date, despite most of our work being in Europe, we have seen only a few Neolithic artifacts coming from Sweden. The TRANCHET AXE is a crude cutting axe made from a long shaped tranchet flake. A broad cutting edge left by the flake removal is often the result, The body of the axe is often extremely crude with the intention to embed the axe into a wooden handle for use. In most cases, incomplete, broken tranchet axes are found. This specimen is COMPLETE which makes it especially desirable, not to mention its much nicer than typical workmanship. Most unusual is that it was found in Sweden - a region where we have seen virtually no stone tools.
This axe features a prominent cutting edge that is intact. It has several iron traces on the patina surface indicating it was struck by a farming plow several times before being discovered, and was most certainly a farm field find as many Paleolithic and Neolithic artifacts are discovered in Europe. For collectors of rare source regions, this is a great collection addition and a classic reference specimen for the tranchet Axe typology of the European Neolithic Culture.
Human habitation of present-day Sweden began around 12000 BC. The earliest known people belonged to the Bromme culture of the Late Palaeolithic, spreading from the south at the close of the Last Glacial Period. Neolithic farming culture became established in the southern regions around 4000 BC, but much later further north. Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnel-beaker Culture in c. 4,000 BC. Whether this happened by diffusion of knowledge or by mass migration or both is controversial. Within a century or two, all of Denmark and the southern third of Sweden became neolithised and much of the area became dotted with megalithic tombs. Farmers were capable of rearing calves to collect milk from cows all year round. The people of the country's northern two thirds retained an essentially Mesolithic lifestyle into the first millennium BC. Coastal south-eastern Sweden, likewise, reverted from neolithisation to a hunting and fishing economy after only a few centuries, with the Pitted Ware Culture. In 2,800 BC, the Funnel Beaker Culture gave way to the Battle Axe Culture, a regional version of the middle-European Corded Ware phenomenon. Again, diffusion of knowledge or mass migration is disputed. The Battle Axe and Pitted Ware people then coexisted as distinct archaeological entities until 2,400 BC, when they merged into a fairly homogeneous Late Neolithic culture. This culture produced the finest flintwork in Scandinavian Prehistory and the last megalithic tombs.
Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnel-beaker Culture in c. 4,000 BC. Whether this happened by diffusion of knowledge or by mass migration or both is controversial. Within a century or two, all of Denmark and the southern third of Sweden became neolithised and much of the area became dotted with megalithic tombs. Farmers were capable of rearing calves to collect milk from cows all year round. The people of the country's northern two thirds retained an essentially Mesolithic lifestyle into the first millennium BC. Coastal south-eastern Sweden, likewise, reverted from neolithisation to a hunting and fishing economy after only a few centuries, with the Pitted Ware Culture.
In 2,800 BC, the Funnel Beaker Culture gave way to the Battle Axe Culture, a regional version of the middle-European Corded Ware phenomenon. Again, diffusion of knowledge or mass migration is disputed. The Battle Axe and Pitted Ware people then coexisted as distinct archaeological entities until 2,400 BC, when they merged into a fairly homogeneous Late Neolithic culture. This culture produced the finest flintwork in Scandinavian Prehistory and the last megalithic tombs.
Medieval Dagger & Knife
A dagger or knife has a very sharp point and usually two sharp edges. Typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon, daggers have been used throughout human history for close combat confrontations and often fulfilled a secondary defence weapon’s role.
Daggers have a short blade with a sharply tapered point, a central spine or fuller, and usually, two cutting edges sharpened the full length of the blade. Most daggers also feature a full crossguard.
The term dagger appears only in the Late Middle Ages, after disappearing during the Early Middle Ages replaced by the hewing knife or seax.
History of the Dagger
The earliest daggers were made of materials such as flint, ivory, or bone in Neolithic times. Copper daggers appeared first in the early Bronze Age, with early Minoan samples being recovered were recovered at Knossos (2400–2000 BC). Iron daggers in Egypt were valued on a level equal to that of their ceremonial gold counterparts. Artisans and blacksmiths of Iberia (today’s Spain and France) produced various iron daggers and high-quality swords from the 5th to the 3rd century BC. During the Roman Empire, legionaries were issued a pugio, a double-edged iron thrusting dagger with a 7–12 inches blade.
During the Middle Ages , most men and women wore a small knife in a sheath as part of their daily dress and used it as an all-purpose eating utensil and tool. In the 12th century, the dagger was known as the “knightly dagger,” or more appropriately cross-hilt or quillon dagger. Many of these cross-hilt daggers resemble miniature swords, with crossguards and pommels very similar in form to swords of the period. The knightly dagger evolved into the larger baselard knife in the 14th century.
With the advent of protective plate armour, the dagger became increasingly valuable as an excellent close-in weapon for stabbing through armour gaps. Fighting techniques around this time also had to adapt to point the blade point to penetrate or push apart an opponent’s chain mail or plate armour.
A dagger in the WLB HB XIII 6 Weltchronik & Marienleben, dated 1300-1350. Lower Austria. Image courtesy of Manuscript Miniatures.
Types of Daggers & Knives
While daggers are intended primarily for stabbing, knives are usually single-edged and mainly intended for cutting. However, many knives and daggers are capable of either stabbing or cutting (although many thrusting knives have been described as daggers, including those that feature only a single cutting edge, such as the European rondel dagger or the Persian pesh-kabz).
Medieval daggers can be broadly classified into:
A medieval long dagger or a very short type of sword, in 14th century England, was worn suspended by a ring from the girdle. Sloane MS (c. 1400) records a song satirizing the use of oversized baselard knives as fashion accessories.
A historical type of dagger or a short sword of the Late Middle Ages. It has an I-shaped handle that evolved out of the 13th-century knightly dagger. The term baselard is in origin a Middle French or Medieval Latin corruption of the German basler [messer] “Basel knife.” Baselards were a popular sidearm carried by the more violence-prone section of civilian society.
A lightweight dagger primarily used for stabbing in close quarters or conjunction with a rapier. This long, lightweight thrusting knife had an acutely pointed blade and crossguard and was historically worn by the upper class, noblemen, and the knighthood.
A long, narrow knife, used from the High Middle Ages to deliver the death stroke (or mercy stroke) to a seriously wounded knight.
A type of stiff-bladed dagger was worn at the waist and perhaps used as a utility tool by various people from merchants to knights. The dagger gets its name from its round (or octagonal) handguard and round or spherical pommel.
A type of dagger with a distinctively shaped hilt, with two oval swellings at the guard resembling male testes, popular between the 13th and 18th centuries. Within Britain, the bollock dagger was commonly carried as a backup for the lance and the sword.
Different types of daggers from "An Illustrated History of Arms and Armour: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time", by Auguste Demmin. Published in 1894 by George Bell.
1) British cutlass, tenth century. It bears on the blade the names “Edwardus,” and “prins agile.” It is attributed to Edward II. 2) Iron dagger, about a foot long, thirteenth century. 3) Iron dagger, thirteenth century. Blade measures about 12 inches, and the haft about 5 inches. 4) Iron poniard, probably Scottish, fourteenth century. 5) Same as above. 6) Poniard, beginning of the fourteenth century. 7) Iron dagger, about 14 inches long, beginning of the fourteenth century. The haft is very long. 8) Iron dagger, about 19 1/2 inches long, end of the fourteenth century. 9) Iron dagger, 14 1/2 inches long, end of the fourteenth century. The handle is of carved bone. 10) Iron dagger, end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. 11) Poniard, end of the fourteenth century. 12) Dagger, fifteenth century. 13) Scottish dagger, about 14 1/2 inches long, wooden handle, fifteenth century. 14) Dagger with single thumb ring, about 16 inches long, fifteenth century. 15) Dagger with double thumb ring, sixteenth century. The two rings were placed there to fix the dagger on a shaft, or at the end of a lance, to resist cavalry. 16) Dagger, anelace, or Verona dagger, fifteenth century. 17) Dagger, anelace, fifteenth century. 18) Dagger, fifteenth century. 19) Dagger of a German lansquenet, sixteenth century, about 14 inches long. Polished steel sheath. 20) Dagger of German lansquenet, sixteenth century. 21) Main gauche, Spanish, with the inscription “Viva Felipe V.,” which shows that this weapon was in use in the year 1701. 22) Stiletto (Spitzdolch), about 12 inches long, end of the sixteenth century. In Germany these weapons were also called Panzerbrecher, or cuirass-breaker. 23) Dagger, Swiss, sixteenth century. These daggers are often provided with small knives, which served to cut the thongs of the armour, to pierce holes, and for various purposes. 24) Dagger, German, sixteenth century. 25) Poniard, German, with wavy blade, very short and broad. 26) Poniard, German, sixteenth century. The guard has four quillons. 27) Main gauche, sixteenth century. 28) Main gauche, German, sixteenth century. 29) Main gauche, German, about 20 inches long, sixteenth century. Engraved handle. 30) Main gauche, German, with indented blade for breaking the enemy’s sword thumb ring, and quillons curved in inverse directions sixteenth century. 31) Main gauche, German, with indented blade for breaking swords, sixteenth century. 32) Close-up of indented blade of previous dagger. 33) Large German brise-épée, sixteenth century. 34) Close-up of indented blade of previous dagger. 35) Poniard, German, sixteenth century. 36) Large main gauche, German, with indented quillons, and grated guard as sword-breaker, seventeenth century. It measures about 25 by 10 inches. 37) Stiletto, German, called Panzerbrecher, or cuirass-breaker, about 12 inches long, sixteenth century. 38) Poniard, about 10 inches long, richly studded with precious stones. This weapon belonged to Sobieski, King of Poland. 39) Poniard, German, called Panzerbrecher. The numbers on the blade probably used for measuring the bore of cannons.
Archaeologists classify stone tools into industries (also known as complexes or technocomplexes  ) that share distinctive technological or morphological characteristics. 
In 1969 in the 2nd edition of World Prehistory, Grahame Clark proposed an evolutionary progression of flint-knapping in which the "dominant lithic technologies" occurred in a fixed sequence from Mode 1 through Mode 5.  He assigned to them relative dates: Modes 1 and 2 to the Lower Palaeolithic, 3 to the Middle Palaeolithic, 4 to the Advanced and 5 to the Mesolithic. They were not to be conceived, however, as either universal—that is, they did not account for all lithic technology or as synchronous—they were not in effect in different regions simultaneously. Mode 1, for example, was in use in Europe long after it had been replaced by Mode 2 in Africa.
Clark's scheme was adopted enthusiastically by the archaeological community. One of its advantages was the simplicity of terminology for example, the Mode 1 / Mode 2 Transition. The transitions are currently of greatest interest. Consequently, in the literature the stone tools used in the period of the Palaeolithic are divided into four "modes", each of which designate a different form of complexity, and which in most cases followed a rough chronological order.
Pre-Mode I Edit
Stone tools found from 2011 to 2014 at Lake Turkana in Kenya, are dated to be 3.3 million years old, and predate the genus Homo by about one million years.   The oldest known Homo fossil is about 2.4-2.3 million years old compared to the 3.3 million year old stone tools.  The stone tools may have been made by Australopithecus afarensis, the species whose best fossil example is Lucy, which inhabited East Africa at the same time as the date of the oldest stone tools, or by Kenyanthropus platyops (a 3.2 to 3.5-million-year-old Pliocene hominin fossil discovered in 1999).      Dating of the tools was by dating volcanic ash layers in which the tools were found and dating the magnetic signature (pointing north or south due to reversal of the magnetic poles) of the rock at the site. 
Grooved, cut and fractured animal bone fossils, made by using stone tools, were found in Dikika, Ethiopia near (200 yards) the remains of Selam, a young Australopithecus afarensis girl who lived about 3.3 million years ago. 
Mode I: The Oldowan Industry Edit
The earliest stone tools in the life span of the genus Homo are Mode 1 tools,  and come from what has been termed the Oldowan Industry, named after the type of site (many sites, actually) found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, where they were discovered in large quantities. Oldowan tools were characterised by their simple construction, predominantly using core forms. These cores were river pebbles, or rocks similar to them, that had been struck by a spherical hammerstone to cause conchoidal fractures removing flakes from one surface, creating an edge and often a sharp tip. The blunt end is the proximal surface the sharp, the distal. Oldowan is a percussion technology. Grasping the proximal surface, the hominid brought the distal surface down hard on an object he wished to detach or shatter, such as a bone or tuber. [ citation needed ]
The earliest known Oldowan tools yet found date from 2.6 million years ago, during the Lower Palaeolithic period, and have been uncovered at Gona in Ethiopia.  After this date, the Oldowan Industry subsequently spread throughout much of Africa, although archaeologists are currently unsure which Hominan species first developed them, with some speculating that it was Australopithecus garhi, and others believing that it was in fact Homo habilis.  Homo habilis was the hominin who used the tools for most of the Oldowan in Africa, but at about 1.9-1.8 million years ago Homo erectus inherited them. The Industry flourished in southern and eastern Africa between 2.6 and 1.7 million years ago, but was also spread out of Africa and into Eurasia by travelling bands of H. erectus, who took it as far east as Java by 1.8 million years ago and Northern China by 1.6 million years ago. [ citation needed ]
Mode II: The Acheulean Industry Edit
Eventually, more complex Mode 2 tools began to be developed through the Acheulean Industry, named after the site of Saint-Acheul in France. The Acheulean was characterised not by the core, but by the biface, the most notable form of which was the hand axe.  The Acheulean first appears in the archaeological record as early as 1.7 million years ago in the West Turkana area of Kenya and contemporaneously in southern Africa.
The Leakeys, excavators at Olduvai, defined a "Developed Oldowan" Period in which they believed they saw evidence of an overlap in Oldowan and Acheulean. In their species-specific view of the two industries, Oldowan equated to H. habilis and Acheulean to H. erectus. Developed Oldowan was assigned to habilis and Acheulean to erectus. Subsequent dates on H. erectus pushed the fossils back to well before Acheulean tools that is, H. erectus must have initially used Mode 1. There was no reason to think, therefore, that Developed Oldowan had to be habilis it could have been erectus. Opponents of the view divide Developed Oldowan between Oldowan and Acheulean. There is no question, however, that habilis and erectus coexisted, as habilis fossils are found as late as 1.4 million years ago. Meanwhile, African H. erectus developed Mode 2. In any case a wave of Mode 2 then spread across Eurasia, resulting in use of both there. H. erectus may not have been the only hominin to leave Africa European fossils are sometimes associated with Homo ergaster, a contemporary of H. erectus in Africa.
In contrast to an Oldowan tool, which is the result of a fortuitous and probably ex tempore operation to obtain one sharp edge on a stone, an Acheulean tool is a planned result of a manufacturing process. The manufacturer begins with a blank, either a larger stone or a slab knocked off a larger rock. From this blank he or she removes large flakes, to be used as cores. Standing a core on edge on an anvil stone, he or she hits the exposed edge with centripetal blows of a hard hammer to roughly shape the implement. Then the piece must be worked over again, or retouched, with a soft hammer of wood or bone to produce a tool finely chipped all over consisting of two convex surfaces intersecting in a sharp edge. Such a tool is used for slicing concussion would destroy the edge and cut the hand.
Some Mode 2 tools are disk-shaped, others ovoid, others leaf-shaped and pointed, and others elongated and pointed at the distal end, with a blunt surface at the proximal end, obviously used for drilling. Mode 2 tools are used for butchering not being composite (having no haft) they are not very appropriate killing instruments. The killing must have been done some other way. Mode 2 tools are larger than Oldowan. The blank was ported to serve as an ongoing source of flakes until it was finally retouched as a finished tool itself. Edges were often sharpened by further retouching.
Mode III: The Mousterian Industry Edit
Eventually, the Acheulean in Europe was replaced by a lithic technology known as the Mousterian Industry, which was named after the site of Le Moustier in France, where examples were first uncovered in the 1860s. Evolving from the Acheulean, it adopted the Levallois technique to produce smaller and sharper knife-like tools as well as scrapers. Also known as the "prepared core technique," flakes are struck from worked cores and then subsequently retouched.  The Mousterian Industry was developed and used primarily by the Neanderthals, a native European and Middle Eastern hominin species, but a broadly similar industry is contemporaneously widespread in Africa. 
Mode IV: The Aurignacian Industry Edit
The widespread use of long blades (rather than flakes) of the Upper Palaeolithic Mode 4 industries appeared during the Upper Palaeolithic between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, although blades were still produced in small quantities much earlier by Neanderthals.  The Aurignacian culture seems to have been the first to rely largely on blades.  The use of blades exponentially increases the efficiency of core usage compared to the Levallois flake technique, which had a similar advantage over Acheulean technology which was worked from cores.
Fishtail daggers occur in the late Neolithic . This section is also known as the Copper Age because of the occasional occurrence of copper and the beginning metallurgy . Fishtail daggers originated around 1600 BC. At the end and as a cultural highlight of the dagger period named after them, which lasted from 2300 to 1600 BC. Between today's Hamburg , in Schleswig-Holstein and the north of Jutland . The flint daggers are divided into types I to VI, only types IV and V are fishtail daggers with a swinging handle end. The most demanding fishtail daggers in terms of quality and production technology are limited to type IV, for which zigzag ridges on the broad sides of the handles are typical. The extent to which copper printing rods were required for the fine retouching is controversial.
Fishtail daggers are usually between 10 and 30 cm long. As a rule, they show finely and carefully retouched cutting edges, the surface shows even, parallel surface retouching in a regular pattern. The shape evolved from simpler preforms. Menghin thought they were imitations of copper daggers. Such were already widespread in the Aunjetitz culture up to today's Lower Saxony .
A find in Wiepenkathen (district of Stade ) also contained remains of organic material that was identified as a wooden handle lined with wool and a leather sheath made of sheepskin. The scabbard was reinforced in particularly stressed areas and was attached to the belt with leather straps.
1) In the site's deeper stratigraphy, not really investigated in previous seasons, we have intense evidence of formal burials and household depositions. Several new spots were located in Area C, attesting such expected evidence on an even larger scale. Two graves and three household deposits were already excavated this season.
Fig. 2. Ba'ja 2016: Area of an intramural cemetery (photo: H.G.K. Gebel)
2) It became clear that we deal at Ba'ja with intramural cemeteries and intramural deposits of buried – most likely terminated – households. The latter are represented by household items (both item assemblages of the same class or single occurrences) and related activities (e.g. dense ash-layers with animal bones showing traces of butchering), animal skeletons, remains of specialized household production (sandstone ring and bidirectional blade production) etc. It is obvious that these are not the ordinary mixed household dumps, since items are not used up or broken and reflect their original association: rather they were shifted collectively from their primary context, forming another new primary context, that of household closures, or – in other words – representing acts of ex-commodification.
3) The two formal burials excavated represent one with two infants (one a few months old, one between 1 and 2 years, no grave goods), and one with a single burial of probably an elite person in a stone chamber marked by a unique flint dagger, a basalt pestle, a stone vessel's rim fragment, and a bone spatula above a stone pavement and inside an ordinary plaster floor sealing of the grave. Aside of having a basalt mace-head, beads and arrowheads as grave goods, the dead wore upper two arm rings from mother-of-pearl on either side, one of a unique composite type with 4 more rings of a clayish material. All burials in that room were deepened into the natural soil deposits on which the site rests, and were sealed by one – or two successive – plaster floors built by stone rubble succeeded by a small pebble layer, succeeded by a plaster coat.
4) This season provided further evidence of early vessel making in Ba'ja. While sherds of a plastic material, most likely "sun-dried" and secondarily fired, were encountered already in 1997 in a nearby cooking/ baking area, this season we identified an in situ vessel of some 50-60 height with a roundish bottom (diam. < 30 cm) as well as a grit-tempered sherd which technologically is close to primitive pottery. This evidence dates back the advent of plastic vessel making in the area (similar evidence from nearby Basta) to the 8th millennium BCE.
5) By excavating half a square down to bedrock in Area B-North, the ground plans of two house units were completed. The record of a previously excavated section in Area B-South provided further insights into the high-energy events (earthquake?, successive landslides) once interrupting the site's occupation before finally been given up around 9000 BCE.
6) For site's protection and management several assessments were carried out at the locality. In short, a concept should consider a backfilling of all excavation areas by stone rubble from the excavation (since sifted sediment is not sufficiently available on-site), except for one area to be consolidated for presentation to visitors. However, it is a sincere logistic and costly effort to backfill the site's open excavation areas, and the study tourism value of the site has to be questioned for having a dangerous and exhausting access.
The single-period and well-preserved site of Ba'ja offers a unique opportunity to reach deep knowledge about the beginnings of sedentary and producing life modes, and how value systems emerged and developed under these conditions. These insights may reflect the Neolithic legacy and basic ingredients inside our own presence and future.
Hans Georg K. Gebel
Ba&lsquoja Neolithic Project, director
Fig. 3. Ba'ja 2016. Intramural burial of an elite person (photo: M. Benz).
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BRONZE AGE SPIRAL RING EUROPE, 1500 - 1200 B.C. bronze, worked from a single wire forming two opposing spirals connected by a ringed shank, with impressed decoration throughout(8cm diameter)Footnote: Provenance: Private collection, acquired 1990s, United Kingdom The Jon Lawton Collection, United Kingdom Note: The conjoined spiral is one of the earliest symbols found in prehistoric Europe, with examples found in rock carvings as far back as the Neolithic. Whatever its true meaning, its continued prevalence well into the Bronze Age suggests a strong totemic value.
A polished axe head, the shaped body with two inverted sections, possibly Neolithic, reputed to have been dug up at Langtoft Fen, 9cm wide.
John Day, Neolithic cave painting, impasto incised oil/gesso on board, 1967, signed, 8" x 29", framedGood original condition
A stone arrowhead, Neolithic / early native American, together with a fossil urchin, former 5 cm
Art of the Americas Zemi, Taino (?)Caribbean area. . Cm 11,00 x 19,00. Hard stone sculpture with showy veins depicting an ancestral spirit Zemi (or Cemi) portrayed in a fetal position with her legs gathered and hands on her chest. This artifact is provided with a label relating to the collection of objects of Count Musari which partly merged into the collection of Pietro Felter.This label attributes its origin to the Chinese Neolithic period, an attribution in our opinion incorrect and we are therefore inclined to believe in an exchange of labels.Provenance: Pietro Felter Collection
Art of the Americas A green obsidian spear head Southern America, Neolithic period. . Cm 3,00 x 11,00.
CHINESE NEOLITHIC POTTERY JAR – MACHANG PHASE The jar unpainted with two looped handles and conical base decorated with a twisted rope band around the shoulder, another indented band below the neck leading into a gently fluted mouth. Machang phase (2300-2000BC). 30cm tall x 33cm wide Provenance: Private English collection in Buckinghamshire since the 1980’s
CHINESE NEOLITHIC POTTERY AMPHORA - QIJIA CULTURE – OXFORD TL TESTED Made in Gansu or Qinghai province. The lower part of the body decorated with carved lines with a single carved band to the bottom of the neck leading into a flaring lip. Two small, looped handles to each side of the waist. Qijia culture (2200-1600BC). 27.5cm tall Oxford TL Tested, Sample No: C200d92, 30th October 2000 – Result: Consistent with the suggested period of manufacture. Provenance: Private English collection in Buckinghamshire since the 1980’s
CHINESE NEOLITHIC PERIOD POTTERY POURING VESSEL - CAIYUAN CULTURE – OXFORD TL TESTED The vessel of conical form with slightly inverted rim and pouring spout on a flat base. Each side with small ‘handles’ possibly used for carrying. The interior painted with roundels of geometric patterns and ‘human-like’ figures in black and red pigment. Caiyuan culture (2600-2200BC). 21cm diam. x 14.3cm tall Oxford TL Tested, Sample No: C200e25, 2nd November 2000 – Result consistent with suggested period of manufacture. Provenance: Private English collection in Buckinghamshire since the 1980’s
LARGE CHINESE NEOLITHIC POTTERY JAR – CAIYUAN CULTURE The wide body with flared mouth decorated from the shoulder with repeated cord impressions spiralling downwards to the foot. The upper part of the jar has been painted in black pigment with geometric patterns and two roundels with deer figures. Caiyuan culture (2600-2200BC). 40cm tall x 36cm diam. Provenance: Private English collection in Buckinghamshire since the 1980’s
RARE CHINESE NEOLITHIC BLACK POTTERY JAR – SIWA CULTURE The body heavily-potted and with a smooth burnished surface. A small flat base, wide body leading up to the narrow neck with flared mouth and two wide handles. 22cm tall. Neolithic, Siwa Culture (c. 1350 BC). Reference: a similar but smaller example is illustrated and described in the 2000 China Institute book “Dawn of the Yellow Earth”. Provenance: the late Brian Page (1938-2018), the well-known Oriental art and antiques dealer from Brighton.
CHINESE NEOLITHIC POTTERY TRIPOD – QIJIA CULTURE A cooking vessel with three hollow bulbous legs. The surface coated with thin cord impressions with “piecrust” decoration around the rim and to the lower body. Two loop handles at opposing sides of the body. Qijia culture (2200-1600BC). 14cm tall Provenance: the late Brian Page (1938-2018), the well-known Oriental art and antiques dealer from Brighton.
CHINESE NEOLITHIC PAINTED POTTERY JAR – MACHANG PHASE Of the Majiayao culture, also known as the Gansu-Yangshao culture, from present day Gansu or Qinghai province. The upper body painted with two roundels of geometric patterns above each handle, between hand like decoration. Machang phase (2300-2000BC). Approx. 30cm x 30cm
Large Neolithic Jade Carved Stone Chinese Cong Vase. Provenance: Important Private California collection. Size: 27.5 x 5.5 in.
Four Chinese Neolithic pottery vessels, each with twin loop handles to the shoulder and painted geometric banded decoration to the body, three bearing labels for Eskenazi London, tallest H13cm
Three Chinese Neolithic pottery vessels, each with twin loop handles to the shoulder and painted geometric banded decoration to the body, all bearing labels for Eskenazi London, tallest H14cm
Two printed ostrich eggs, one decorated with Zulu warriors and text 'Zulu War' and ', the other with soldiers in various uniforms and text 'Boer War' and -1902', each mounted on a turned wooden stand, 23cm high, with a further ostrich egg decorated with neolithic style paintings (3)
*JACQUI NEWMAN (b.1960)Faux Neolithic arttwo interpretations of cave paintings, depicting horses and buffalo, both signed l.r., mixed media30 x 122cm and 42 x 122cm, one unframed (2)*Artist's Resale Right may apply to this lot.
A Chinese pale celadon and russet jade amulet in the Neolithic style, Qing Dynasty, of semi-figural form, the mask head with two horns above an open mouth with simple loop arms, length 6cm.Condition: No discernible damage.
A Neolithic axe head, purportedly from The New Forest, Hampshire, possibly originating from The Alps, 11cm wide.
NATURAL HISTORY - Neolithic period stone axe head, 6¼in. (15.9cm.) long. (missing tip)
A Chinese terracotta vessel, painted in earth pigments with geometric motifs, arched loop handle, upright spout, 18cm high, Yangshao Culture, Neolithic period, 5000 BC to 3000 BC
* Funerary Pot. A Chinese Neolithic earthenware funerary pot, circa 2000 BC, the ovoid two handle pot painted with black net decoration, 33cm highQty: (1)NOTESProvenance: Private Collection, South Wales.
* Funerary Pot. A Chinese Neolithic earthenware funerary pot, circa 2000 BC, the ovoid two handle pot painted with black net decoration and oval panel, 18cm highQty: (1)NOTESProvenance: Private Collection, South Wales. Christie's, 13 February 1997 (Lot 482).
* Funerary Pot. A Chinese Neolithic earthenware funerary pot, circa 2000 BC, the ovoid two handle pot painted with black geometric decoration and red rings, 30cm highQty: (1)NOTESProvenance: Private Collection, South Wales.
* Funerary Pot. A Chinese Neolithic earthenware funerary pot, circa 2000 BC, the ovoid two handle pot painted with black and red net decoration, 36cm highQty: (1)NOTESProvenance: Private Collection, South Wales.
* Funerary Pot. A Chinese Neolithic earthenware funerary pot, circa 2000 BC, the ovoid two handle pot painted with black geometric decoration, 34cm highQty: (1)NOTESProvenance: Private Collection, South Wales.
Neolithic flint knives and fragments etc. from Wimbledon & Merton, and a dolerite hand-axe, together with 17th/18th century tile fragments, 18th century plaster mouldings from Llwyn-y-Brain mansion near LLandovery, a pine Ionic capital' fragmentCONDITION: Provenance - Alfred Theodore Arber-Cooke (c.1905-1993) thence by family descent. Arber-Cooke was an antiquarian and avid collector of Antiquities and Asian works of art, principally collecting from the 1930s to the 1970s. He intially lived in Wimbledon, Greater London and was involved with local archaeological digs undertaken by the Surrey Archaeological Society. He wrote the book 'Old Wimbledon', with a foreword the MP Sir Arthur Fell, published in 1927. He later moved to Llandovery in Carmarthenshire, Wales, again involved with local archaeology and wrote the History of Llandovery, published in 1975. Further items from the collection to be offered in our 30th March Fine sale.
A collection of various Neolithic and later stone implements, arrow and axeheadscollected from New Zealand, North America and other areas, with some annotations, including possibly a Maori Toki Pounamu, contained within a boxCondition report: Please see additional images
Caroline Millar Venus, 2021 Mixed Media on Paper Signed verso 15 x 10cm (5¾ x 3¾ in.) Caroline Millar (b. 1964) is an emerging artist from Glasgow, Scotland. Her mixed-media paintings come about through a multi-layered process of laying down and peeling back, sanding and scraping. Caroline is inspired by childhood memories, and the age-worn surfaces which hold the history of a land, cityscape or domestic setting. Education She has a BA (hons) in Interior Design from Chelsea College of Art and Design. Gallery Representation Caroline is represented by Brownsword Hepworth, London and is working towards a solo show there in July. About the auction artworks For the auction Caroline has created 'Salt Water'. ""The level of sodium in sea water is similar to the level within our body fluids. We came from the sea and ultimately we shall return to the sea. At the level of our cells - we are all connected."" And 'Venus'. ""The first gift my husband gave me was a replica of the Orkney Venus - a tiny stone carving from a Neolithic site. It was initially believed to depict a female but now they're not so sure. To me it's a symbol of humanity and a reminder that in the end - all there is is art."
Caroline Millar Salt Water, 2021 Mixed Media on Paper Signed verso 15 x 10cm (5¾ x 3¾ in.) Caroline Millar (b. 1964) is an emerging artist from Glasgow, Scotland. Her mixed-media paintings come about through a multi-layered process of laying down and peeling back, sanding and scraping. Caroline is inspired by childhood memories, and the age-worn surfaces which hold the history of a land, cityscape or domestic setting. Education She has a BA (hons) in Interior Design from Chelsea College of Art and Design. Gallery Representation Caroline is represented by Brownsword Hepworth, London and is working towards a solo show there in July. About the auction artworks For the auction Caroline has created 'Salt Water'. ""The level of sodium in sea water is similar to the level within our body fluids. We came from the sea and ultimately we shall return to the sea. At the level of our cells - we are all connected."" And 'Venus'. ""The first gift my husband gave me was a replica of the Orkney Venus - a tiny stone carving from a Neolithic site. It was initially believed to depict a female but now they're not so sure. To me it's a symbol of humanity and a reminder that in the end - all there is is art."
A Neolithic painted red earthenware vase, of flared form with two small handles, the interior painted with black stripes, 15.5cm wide and a small pottery triple spouted vessel, possibly Han dynasty, 6cm high, (2). Condition Report Vase- Chip to rim, approx 1cm. length which extends into a haircrack approx. 1cm. length. Haircrack to rim, approx. 6.5cm. length. Some nibbles to rim. Some wear to interior.Vessel- some small rim chips.
A Neolithic Adze blade, carved and polished stone, circa 3000 BC, tapered form with rounded end and angled edges, 17cm long
A LARGE MOLDED AND ENAMELED PORCELAIN ‘LEAPING CARP’ SNUFF BOTTLE, QING DYNASTYChina, 19th century. Finely molded and painted in bright enamels as a large fish with raised scales emerging from crashing waves forming the oval base, its mouth forming the neck of the bottle.Provenance: French private collection. Condition: Excellent condition with minor wear and firing flaws.Stopper: Amber with black collar and metal spoon Weight: 58.5 gDimensions: Height including stopper 103 mm. Diameter neck 15 mm and mouth 7 mmFish appeared as decoration on Chinese ceramics as early as the Neolithic period, and have remained a popular theme in Chinese art, especially ceramics and paintings, ever since. Vessels made in the form of fish, especially two confronted fish, were popular during the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907) and again in the 18th century. Much of the popularity of fish as a decorative theme, especially in later dynasties, hinges on the fact that the word for fish (yu) is a homophone for the word for abundance, and the word for carp (li) a homophone for the word for profit.清代琺琅彩鯉魚形鼻烟壺 中國，十九世紀。精細塑造成一條大鯉魚，明亮的琺瑯彩，尾部是浪花，鱗片分明，其嘴部形成瓶子的頸部。 來源：法國私人收藏 品相：狀況極佳，有輕微磨損和燒傷缺陷 壺蓋：琥珀，黑色蓋托，金屬小壺匙 重量：58.5 克 尺寸：含蓋總高103 毫米，頸部直徑15 毫米，嘴部直徑7 毫米
AN IVORY JADE BANGLE, LIANGZHU CULTUREChina, Liangzhu Culture, c. 3300-2200 BC. Of circular form, the sides finely incised with taotie masks on three rectangular registers, the opaque stone of a grayish-white color with dark grayish-black and russet veins.Provenance: Formerly in the collection of Dr. Simon Kwan, Hong Kong. The collection of a member of the Rockefeller family, acquired from the above, circa 1990 (old collector’s label to base reading “Liangzhu, Ex. Coll. Kwan 18,000“). US private collection, acquired from the above in 2017. Dr. Simon Kwan (b. 1941) is a former Hong Kong architect, receiving many awards for his work over the years. He is also a painter and a dedicated researcher and scholar in the field of Chinese art and design. He has written many papers and delivered many lectures on Chinese art at universities and institutions in Hong Kong and abroad. In 1994, the Institute of Chinese Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong held an exhibition of 239 jades from Dr. Kwan’s private collection, Chinese Archaic Jades from the Kwan Collection.Condition: Naturally aged condition commensurate with age, possibly with alterations from the period. Extensive erosion, smaller losses with old fillings, minor nicks here and there, encrustations, natural fissures, some of which may have developed into small cracks over time. Good natural patina, unctuous feel. Inspected under strong blue light.Weight: 192.1 gDimensions: Height 3.8 cm, Inner Diameter 5.1 cm, Outer Diameter 7.2 cmAuction result comparison: Compare with a related jade bangle at Christie’s Hong Kong in The Chang Wei-Hwa Collection of Archaic Jades, Part I - Neolithic Period on 27 November 2019, lot 2724, sold for HKD 2,375,000.良渚文化象牙色玉手鐲 中國，良渚文化，公元前 3300-2200 年。側面雕刻饕餮紋，灰白色的不透明石頭帶有深灰黑色和赤褐色的脈絡。 來源：原為香港関善明博士收藏。洛克菲勒家族成員大約在1990年從上述收藏購得，舊藏家的標籤上標有“ Liangzhu，Ex。Coll。Kwan 18,000”。 美國私人收藏，於2017年從上述收藏中獲得。関善明博士（生於1941年）是一位前香港建築師，多年來因其工作獲得許多獎項。 他還是一位畫家以及中國藝術和設計領域的專家和學者。 他在香港和國外的大學和機構中撰寫了許多論文，並發表了許多關於中國藝術的演講。 1994年，香港中文大學中文研究所舉辦了一場展覽，展示了關博士私人收藏的239件玉器包括中國高古玉。 圖片: 関善明博士於1999年12月2日在香港大學名譽大學獎學金頒獎典禮上 品相：自然老化的狀況與年齡相稱，可能與該時期的變化有關。 廣泛的侵蝕，舊時填充物修補，局部小刻痕，結殼，自然裂縫，隨著時間的流逝，其中一些可能會發展成小裂縫。 良好油潤的天然包漿。 在強烈的藍光下檢查過。 重量：192.1 克 尺寸：高 3.8 厘米, 內圈直徑5.1 厘米, 外圈直徑7.2 厘米 拍賣結果比較：一件相似玉鐲，售于香港佳士得The Chang Wei-Hwa Collection of Archaic Jades, Part I - Neolithic Period 拍場2019年11月 27日，lot 2724, 售價HKD 2,375,000。
A MOTTLED GREEN JADE CONG, LIANGZHU CULTUREChina, Late Neolithic, c. 3300-2200 BC. Of cylindrical form with square projections on four corners, each corner carved with two different registers of stylized mask, one comprising twin bands of narrow parallel grooves above incised circular ‘eyes’ and a short raised band with rounded ends for the ‘nose’, and the other with larger eyes and without the parallel bands.Provenance: Old French private collection. Note the old inventory number, neatly inscribed in red lacquer to the inner ring of the cong.Condition: Good condition commensurate with age, some nicks and nibbling to the edges, the stone with natural fissures, some of which may have developed into minor cracks over time. Fine patina.Weight: 814.8 gDimensions: Height 5.9 cm, Diameter 9.1 cmThe dark green jade mottled and streaked with cloudy off-white and black veins and inclusions. Cong are the most characteristic artifacts of the Liangzhu culture and are a kind of counterpart to the “cosmic” Bi discs, as well as possibly having a symbolic connection to the goddess of the earth.The majority of the comparable examples from controlled excavations have been discovered in the richly furnished tombs of two of the most important Liangzhu culture cemeteries, Yaoshan and Fanshan in Yuhang County, Zheiiang Province and in other sites: see the examples reproduced in Zhongguo meishu quanji, nos. 172, 175, 177, 180 and 181.Literature comparison: A Liangzhu jade cong of similar form, material and also carved with two registers of masks at the corners, with the top register representing a man, and the bottom register representing a monster mask, is currently in the Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, and illustrated in Liangzhu wenhua yuqi, Hong Kong, 1989, p. 17, no. 18 (fig. 3). Another example similar to the present lot with linear designs, but with only one register of masks, is also in the Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and illustrated in Liangzhu wenhua yuqi, Hong Kong, 1989, p. 30, no. 39. For additional examples of two-tiered Cong see F. Salviati, 4000 Years of Chinese Archaic Jades, Edition Zacke, Vienna 2017, nos. 51, 53 and 54.Auction result comparison: Compare with a related cong of similar form but slightly smaller size, also carved with two registers of masks at the corners, the stone of an ivory-white tone, at Christie’s Hong Kong in Important Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art on 30 May 2018, lot 3080, sold for HKD 3,700,000.良渚文化玉琮中國，新石器時代晚期，公元前約 3300-2200 年。内圓外方，雕刻人面紋。 來源：法國私人老收藏，内圈可見紅漆書寫的收藏編號。 品相：良好的狀態與年齡相稱，有一些缺口和邊緣磨損，有天然裂縫的石頭，隨著時間的流逝，其中一些可能會發展成細微的裂縫。 良好的包漿。 重量：814.8 克 尺寸：高5.9 厘米, 直徑9.1 厘米 拍賣結果比較：一件相似尺寸略小的琮，四角雕有人面紋，象牙白色調，售于香港佳士得Important Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art 拍場2018年5月30日，lot 3080, 售價HKD 3,700,000.
A BROWN JADE CONG, LIANGZHU CULTUREChina, Late Neolithic, c. 3300-2200 BC. Of cylindrical form with square projections on four corners, each corner carved with two different registers of stylized masks, one comprising twin bands of narrow parallel grooves above incised circular ‘eyes’ and a short raised band with rounded ends for the ‘nose’, and the other with larger eyes and without the parallel bands.Provenance: Myrna Myers, Paris, 1987, by repute. English private collection in Bournemouth, acquired from the above and thence by descent in the same family. When Sam Myers was sent to Paris by his law firm in the mid-1960s, he and his wife Myrna became so enamored with the city that they decided to make it their home. There, over the course of 50 years, they built an extraordinary art collection, and in 1976, Myrna opened a gallery in Paris specializing in Asian art.Condition: Good condition commensurate with age, some nicks and nibbling to the edges, the stone with natural fissures, some of which may have developed into minor cracks over time.Weight: 439.5 gDimensions: Height 5.9 cm, Diameter 7.6 cmLiterature comparison: For several examples of two-tiered Cong, see F. Salviati, 4000 Years of Chinese Archaic Jades, Edition Zacke, Vienna 2017, nos. 51, 53 and 54.良渚文化玉琮 中國，新石器時代末期，公元前約 3300-2200 年。内圓外方，四角各有不同人面紋。 來源：一個英國Bournemouth私人收藏據説1987年購於巴黎Myrna Myer，自此保存在同一家族至今。1960年代中期，Sam Myers被他的律師事務所派往巴黎，他和妻子Myrna對這座城市非常著迷，以至於他們決定將其作為自己的家。 在之後的50年的時間裡，他們在那裡建立了非凡的藝術收藏。1976年，Myrna在巴黎開設了一家專門從事亞洲藝術的藝廊。圖片：Myrna 與 Sam Myers 品相：良好的狀態與年齡相稱，有一些缺口和邊緣磨損，玉石有天然裂縫，隨著時間的流逝，其中一些可能會發展成細微的裂縫。 重量：439.5 克 尺寸：高5.9 厘米, 直徑7.6 厘米
A MOTHER-OF-PEARL-INLAID BLACK LACQUER RECTANGULAR TRAY, JOSEON DYNASTYKorea, 16th-17th century. With a wide flaring rim, superbly decorated with stylized lotus flowers on scrolling vines, to the interior with stylized auspicious symbols topping each flower, the base lacquered cinnabar red.Provenance: Gerard Hawthorn LTD Oriental Art, London, UK, 24 April 2008. A noted private collection in Abcoude, Netherlands, acquired from the above. A copy of the invoice, erroneously describing the piece as Chinese and from the Ming dynasty, accompanies this lot.Condition: Excellent condition commensurate with age, old wear, crackling, a small loss to one corner with associated touchup, the interior with four and the exterior with two replaced inlays (inspected under strong blue light) out of more than 200 inlays in total.Weight: 639 gDimensions: Size 4.3 x 31.7 x 19.2 cmAlthough they superficially resemble and, indeed, are often incorrectly termed as orchids, or even peony blossoms, the flowers depicted on this tray actually are stylized lotus blossoms, as indicated by the appearance of the associated buds. The stylized blossoms, which are known as byeonryeon in Korean, likely first appeared in the silk textiles of China’s Song dynasty (960– 1279). Popularized in Chinese porcelains of the Yuan (1279–1368) and Ming (1368–1644) dynasties, the foreign lotus design, or fanlianwen, spread to Korea early in the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910) and was incorporated into the decorative schemes of Korean blue-and-white porcelain, buncheong ware, and inlaid lacquers.Though little is known of the earliest history of lacquer-making in Korea, archaeological evidence indicates that Korean craftsmen were making lacquered objects at least two thousand years ago, in the late Neolithic and early historic periods. By the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) Koreans were producing elegant lacquer vessels and sutra-storage chests in black lacquer embellished with small floral designs inlaid in mother of pearl, the designs occasionally augmented with small, twisted, metal wires inset as borders and as the stems in floral arabesques. The tradition of inlaid lacquers continued into the succeeding Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), usually in black lacquer with bold floral designs inlaid in mother of pearl.Auction result comparison: Compare with a related foliate-shaped tray, of larger size and dated to the 17th-18th century at Christie’s New York in Japanese and Korean Art on 18 April 2018, lot 141, sold for USD 137,500. Compare also with a related but larger stationery box at Christie’s New York in Japanese and Korean Art on 22 September 2020, lot 252, sold for USD 81,250, and another at Sotheby’s Hong Kong in Asian Lacquer on 27 May 2014, lot 902, sold for HKD 750,000.朝鮮王朝黑漆髹螺鈿托盤韓國，十六至十七世紀。托盤敞口，邊緣外翻。纏枝卷葉花卉紋以及吉祥符號。底部朱紅漆。 來源：倫敦Gerard Hawthorn LTD 東方藝術藝廊, 2008年4月24日。荷蘭Abcoude 知名私人收藏，購於上述藝廊。隨附發票複印件（錯誤描述該拍品來自中國明代）。 品相：良好的狀態與年齡相符，舊磨損，開裂，一角有小修，一共200多個鑲嵌螺鈿只有內部有四処以及外部有兩処螺鈿經過替換（在強藍光下檢查）。 重量：639 克 尺寸：4.3 x 31.7 x 19.2 厘米 拍賣結果比較：一件葉狀托盤，更大尺寸，十七至十八世紀，見紐約佳士得Japanese and Korean Art 拍場2018年4月18日 lot 141, 售價USD 137,500. ；一件更大尺寸的文具盒見紐約佳士得Japanese and Korean Art 拍場2020年9月on 22日 lot 252, 售價USD 81,250, ；還有一件見香港蘇富比Asian Lacquer 拍場2014年5月27日 lot 902, 售價HKD 750,000.
A DARK GREEN JADE HOOF-SHAPED ORNAMENT, HONGSHAN CULTUREChina, 4700-2900 BC. Of hollow cylindrical form with an oblique and gently curved rim. The opaque stone of a dark green tone, appearing almost black, with pale green veins and cloudy white inclusions.Provenance: The Collection of Irene and Wolfgang Zacke. The couple has been active in the art trade for well over half a century and were one of the first in Austria to offer Asian works of art for sale, starting in 1968. Since the late 1980s, they have been collecting ancient Chinese jades, building an extensive collection over the decades. Old inventory number ‘C.17.4’ to the interior, indicating a prior museum deaccession.Condition: Very good condition with old wear, signs of weathering, particularly to the interior, the stone with natural fissures, some of which may have developed into small hairline cracks over time. Minor traces of erosion and shallow surface scratches.Weight: 136.2 gDimensions: Height 9.8 cmLiterature comparison: For a related jade, see the ornament unearthed at a Hongshan site at Niuheiliang, Jianping, Liaoning Province included in Xiaoneng Yang (ed.), The Golden Age of Chinese Archeology, Yale University Press, 1999, cat. no. 11, pp. 83-85.Auction result comparison: Compare with a related hoof-shaped jade ornament at Christie’s Hong Kong in The Chang Wei-Hwa Collection of Archaic Jades, Part I – The Neolithic Period on 27 November 2019, lot 2714, sold for HKD 112,500.紅山文化墨綠色馬蹄形玉件中國，公元前4700-2900 年。呈空心圓柱體，傾斜且柔和彎曲的邊緣。 深綠色調的不透明玉石，幾乎呈黑色，有淺綠色的脈絡和混濁的絮狀物。來源：Irene 與Wolfgang Zacke收藏。這對夫妻一直活躍於藝術品行業已有半個多世紀，自1968年起他們開始在奧地利經營亞洲藝術品，是最早的商人之一。自1980年代後期以來，他們一直在收集中國古玉，數十年來建立了一個大規模的收藏。内部有博物館收藏標簽“C.17.4”。 圖片：Irene Zacke 與 Prof. Filippo Salviati教授圖片：内部博物館收藏標簽“C.17.4”品相：狀況良好，有舊磨損，風化，尤其是內部，石頭具有天然裂紋，隨著時間的流逝，其中一些可能會發展成細小的裂縫。 輕微的腐蝕痕跡和表面淺划痕。重量：136.2 克尺寸：高 9.8 厘米拍賣結果比較：一件相近馬蹄形玉件，見香港佳士得 The Chang Wei-Hwa Collection of Archaic Jades, Part I – The Neolithic Period 拍場，2019年11月27日，lot 2714, 售價HKD 112,500.
A DARK GREEN JADE OPENWORK ‘CLOUD-SCROLL’ PENDANT, GOUYUN, HONGSHAN CULTUREChina, c. 4500-3000 BC. The opaque stone of a dark green, almost black tone with paler green shadings as well as cloudy white and russet inclusions, the pendant with a prominent central scroll and protuberances at the corners reminiscent of phoenix heads. Pierced for suspension.Provenance: The Collection of Irene and Wolfgang Zacke. The couple has been active in the art trade for well over half a century and were one of the first in Austria to offer Asian works of art for sale, starting in 1968. Since the late 1980s, they have been collecting ancient Chinese jades, building an extensive collection over the decades. Published: 4000 Years of Chinese Archaic Jades, Prof. Filippo Salviati, 2017, page 20, no. 18.Condition: Very good condition with old wear, signs of weathering, some nibbling to edges, minor traces of use and shallow surface scratches, the stone with natural fissures, some of which may have developed into small hairline cracks over time. Weight: 117.1 gDimensions: Length 13.5 cmLiterature comparison: Compare with a related jade excavated at the Sudalei archaeological site in Bairin Right Banner and now in the Museum of Chifeng city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.Auction result comparison: Compare with a related cloud-scroll ornament of a paler green color at Christie’s Hong Kong in The Chang Wei-Hwa Collection of Archaic Jades, Part I – The Neolithic Period on 27 November 2019, lot 2711, sold for HKD 175,000.紅山文化墨綠色玉勾云紋佩中國，公元前 4500-3000年。暗綠色的不透明玉石，幾乎呈黑色，帶有淡綠色的紋理，夾雜這白色和赤褐色。玉佩中央彎曲鏤空，在邊角處有突起，讓人聯想到鳳凰頭部。 穿孔懸掛。來源：Irene 與Wolfgang Zacke收藏。這對夫妻一直活躍於藝術品行業已有半個多世紀，自1968年起他們開始在奧地利經營亞洲藝術品，是最早的商人之一。自1980年代後期以來，他們一直在收集中國古玉，數十年來建立了一個大規模的收藏。 圖片：Irene Zacke 與 Prof. Filippo Salviati教授出版：4000 Years of Chinese Archaic Jades, Prof. Filippo Salviati, 2017, page 20, no. 18.品相：狀況良好，有舊磨損，風化，一些邊緣磨損，輕微使用痕跡和表面淺痕，帶有天然裂紋的玉石，隨著時間的流逝，其中一些可能發展成細小的裂縫。重量：117.1 克尺寸：長13.5 厘米拍賣結果比較：一件相近雲紋青玉佩見香港佳士得The Chang Wei-Hwa Collection of Archaic Jades, Part I – The Neolithic Period 拍場2019年11月27日 lot 2711, 售價HKD 175,000.
AN EXCEPTIONALLY LARGE PALE GREEN AND RUSSET JADE BI DISC, EARLY BRONZE AGEChina, c. 2200-1900 BC. Of somewhat irregular thickness and still retaining the cutting marks on the walls of the central hole drilled from both sides, the mostly translucent stone of variegated shades of green ranging from pale olive to sea-green with some russet-brown veining and shadings as well as cloudy white inclusions.Provenance: The Collection of Irene and Wolfgang Zacke. The couple have been active in the art trade for well over half a century and were one of the first in Austria to offer Asian works of art for sale, starting in 1968. Since the late 1980s, they have been collecting ancient Chinese jades, building an extensive collection over the decades.Published: 4000 Years of Chinese Archaic Jades, Prof. Filippo Salviati, 2017, page 96, no. 109.Condition: Excellent condition with old wear, signs of weathering, nibbling and some losses to edges, the stone with natural fissures, some of which have developed into larger hairline cracks over time. Some traces of use and shallow surface scratches.Weight: 3,814 gDimensions: Diameter 43.5 cmBi discs are a type of jade which continued to be crafted in numbers by cultures located in central and northwest China during the transitional period between the Neolithic and Bronze Age. The majority of these discs range in size between ten and twenty centimeters: large ones, such as the present lot, are rare. Their size and weight, requiring both hands to hold them, suggest that these imposing discs were displayed and used in a ritual context. The hole is usually drilled from one side only: on larger discs, it is smoothed down and the traces of the tool marks are almost invisible.The whitened areas are mostly limited to the edges. This alteration, which is often seen on excavated jades, was probably created by the action of alkaline body fluids on the nephrite.Literature comparison: A related green jade bi of smaller size (22 cm diameter) is illustrated by J. Rawson, Chinese Jade from the Neolithic to the Qing, British Museum, 1995, p. 155, no. 7:6, where the author ascribes it to northwest China, c. 2000-1000 BC. One large disc which measures 32.5 cm in diameter is in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, accession number A.42-1936.Auction result comparison: Compare with a related dark green jade bi, dated to circa 2000-1500 BC, of much smaller size (21.3 cm diameter), at Christie’s New York in Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art on 20 September 2013, lot 1449, sold for USD 40,000. Compare also with a related jade from the same period, but still of considerably smaller size (34.1 cm diameter), from the A.W. Bahr Collection, at Christie’s New York in Fine Chinese Art from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections on 18 March 2009, lot 277, sold for USD 194,500.青銅時代大型青玉璧中國，公元前2200-1900 年。厚度不規則，保留著切割痕跡，主體半透明，夾雜著不同深淺的綠色，從淺橄欖色到海綠色，帶有紅褐色的紋理，以及絮狀物。來源：Irene 與Wolfgang Zacke收藏。這對夫妻一直活躍於藝術品行業已有半個多世紀，自1968年起他們開始在奧地利經營亞洲藝術品，是最早的商人之一。自1980年代後期以來，他們一直在收集中國古玉，數十年來建立了一個大規模的收藏。 圖片：Irene Zacke 與 Prof. Filippo Salviati教授出版：4000 Years of Chinese Archaic Jades, Prof. Filippo Salviati, 2017, page 96, no. 109.品相：狀況良好，有舊磨損，風化，一些邊緣磨損，輕微使用痕跡和表面淺痕，帶有天然裂紋的玉石，隨著時間的流逝，其中一些可能會發展成細小的裂縫。重量：3,814 克尺寸：直徑43.5 厘米拍賣結果比較：一件相近墨綠玉璧，公元前 2000-1500年, 尺寸更小 (直徑21.3 厘米), 見紐約佳士得Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art 拍場2013年9月20 日 lot 1449, 售價USD 40,000. 一件來自同一時期但尺寸更小（直徑34.1 厘米）的玉璧，來自A.W. Bahr 收藏, 見紐約佳士得Fine Chinese Art from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections 拍場2009年3月18日 lot 277, 售價USD 194,500.
Collection of Roman and Iron Age bronze objects to include terret ring, Roman bronze pin, bracelet, pair tweezersThis item is from the collection of Lionel Walrond. Lionel was born in 1927, his parents were tenant farmers on a small dairy farm in Somerset. Sadly, both parents died before Lionel's 4th birthday and he was brought up by aunties and an uncle in Pitney, Somerset. On leaving school he was not drawn to a life in farming but became interested in history and archaeology. This interest lead to the discovery of three Roman mosaics in South Somerset before his 18th birthday! The most famous is the Low Ham Villa (the mosaic has pride of place in the Museum of Somerset). Lionel fervently collected local historical artefacts and set up his own museum on the farm in a converted WWII American Army Nissen hut. Local finds of Roman and Neolithic origin were displayed alongside agricultural bygones. Lionel moved to Stroud in 1955 to take up the post of curator at the Lansdown Museum, a post which he held for the following 37 years. He was a member of a number of local and national historical societies and was an elected fellow of the Museum Association.
Dr. Karsten Wentink
Karsten Wentink started his studies in 2001 at the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University. He did a combined bachelors in both archaeological sciences (focus on functional analysis at the Laboratory for Artefact studies) and prehistoric archaeology (with a focus on the Neolithic of North-West Europe). He finished his Masters thesis in 2006 on Neolithic flint axe depositions. He started his PhD research in 2008 focussing on the role of grave sets in Corded Ware and Bell Beaker funerary practices.