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Elisabeth Scholl

Elisabeth Scholl


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Elisabeth Scholl, the daughter of Robert Scholl and Magdalena Scholl, was born in Forchtenberg in 1920. Elisabeth was very close to her sisters and brothers, Inge (b. 1917) Hans (b. 1918), Sophie (b. 1921), Werner (b. 1922) and Thilde (b. 1925). "The Scholl children were seldom seen tumbling about the streets and were never heard singing improper songs in public. A close-knit clan with a strong sense of each other, they usually provided themselves with enough companionship to make a presence of outsiders unnecessary." (1)

Her father was elected mayor of Forchtenberg. Over the next few years he managed to get the railway extended to the town. He also had a community sports centre built in Forchtenberg but he was considered to be too progressive for some and in 1930 he was voted out of office. (2)

The family moved to Ulm in 1932. "Robert Scholl had lived in several small towns in Swabia, an area of south-west Germany known for its rural charms, thrifty people, and spirit of independence, before settling in Ulm, where he opened his own office as a tax and business consultant. He was a big, rather heavyset man, with strong opinions and an unwillingness, if not an inability, to keep those opinions to himself." (3)

Elisabeth, like her sisters, Inge School and Sophie Scholl, joined German League of Girls (BDM) in 1933, whereas her brothers, Hans Scholl and Werner Scholl joined the Hitler Youth. Their father disapproved of Adolf Hitler. "My father had a pacifist conviction and he championed that. That certainly played a role in our education. But we were all excited in the Hitler youth in Ulm, sometimes even with the Nazi leadership." (4)

The historian, Richard F. Hanser, has pointed out: "The Scholl children, all five of them - Inge, Hans, Elisabeth, Sophie, and Werner - needed no government propaganda to urge them to love their country. Like most children everywhere, they were patriotic by instinct, and the country they loved was their immediate surroundings." (5)

Robert Scholl claimed that Hitler 's attempt to reduce unemployment by military spending would result in war: "Have you considered how he's going to manage it? He's expanding the armaments industry, and building barracks. Do you know where that's all going to end." (6) Elisabeth later pointed out why they rejected their father's advice: "We just dismissed it: he's too old for this stuff, he doesn't understand. My father had a pacifist conviction and he championed that. But we were all excited in the Hitler youth in Ulm, sometimes even with the Nazi leadership." (7)

Hans Scholl was the first to question the ideology of the Nazi Party. Hans chosen to be the flag bearer when his unit attended the Nuremberg Rally in 1936. His sister, Inge Scholl, later recalled: "His joy was great. But when he returned, we could not believe our eyes. He looked tired and showed signs of a great disappointment. We did not expect any explanation from him, but gradually we found out that the image and model of the Hitler Youth which had been impressed upon him there was totally different from his own ideal... Hans underwent a remarkable change... This had nothing to do with Father's objections; he was able to close his ears to those. It was something else. The leaders had told him that his songs were not allowed... Why should he be forbidden to sing these songs that were so full of beauty? Merely because they had been created by other races?" (8)

Shortly after Hans returned from Nuremberg, an important BDM leader arrived from Stuttgart to conduct an evening of ideological training for the girls in Ulm. When the members were asked if they had any preferences for discussion, Sophie Scholl suggested they read poems by Heinrich Heine, one of her favourite writers. The leader was appalled and pointed out that the left-wing, anti-war, Jewish writer, had his books burned and banned by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels in 1933. Apparently, Sophie replied, "Whoever doesn't know Heine, does not know German literature." (9) Elisabeth argued that all the Scholl children gradually became hostile to the government: "First, we saw that one could no longer read what one wanted to, or sing certain songs. Then came the racial legislation. Jewish classmates had to leave school." (10)

Hans Scholl and some of his friends decided to form their own youth organization. Inge Scholl later recalled: "The club had its own most impressive style, which had grown up out of the membership itself. The boys recognized one another by their dress, their songs, even their way of talking... For these boys life was a great, splendid adventure, an expedition into an unknown, beckoning world. On weekends they went on hikes, and it was their way, even in bitter cold, to live in a tent... Seated around the campfire they would read aloud to each other or sing, accompanying themselves with guitar, banjo, and balalaika. They collected the folk songs of all peoples and wrote words and music for their own ritual chants and popular songs." (11)

At the age of nineteen, every German, male or female, had to spend six months on a construction project or a farm. The National Labour Service was an attempt to keep the young under the supervision of government agencies as long as possible. It also removed thousands from the labour market and therefore reduced the unemployment statistics and kept young people off the streets where they might cause trouble. (12) Hans Scholl was assigned to road building near a place called Göppingen. The project was part of the Autobahn system, the network of roads across Germany, which was one of Hitler's most valued programs. (13)

Six months of National Labour Service was followed by conscription into the German Army. Hans always loved horses and he volunteered and was accepted for a cavalry unit in 1937. A few months later he was arrested in his barracks by the Gestapo. Apparently, it had been reported that while living in Ulm he had been taking part in activities that were not part of the Hitler Youth program. Sophie, Inge and Werner Scholl were also arrested. (14)

As Sophie was only sixteen, she was released and allowed to go home the same day. One biographer has pointed out: "She seemed too young and girlish to be a menace to the state, but in releasing her the Gestapo was letting slip a potential enemy with whom it would later have to reckon in a far more serious situation. There is no way of establishing the precise moment when Sophie School decided to become an overt adversary of the National Socialist state. Her decision, when it came, doubtless resulted from the accretion of offences, small and large, against her conception of what was right, moral, and decent. But now something decisive had happened. The state had laid its hands on her and her family, and now there was no longer any possibility of reconciling herself to a system that had already begun to alienate her." (15)

The Gestapo searched the Scholl house and confiscated diaries, journals, poems, essays, folk song collections, and other evidence of being members of an illegal organisation. Inge and Werner were released after a week of confinement. Hans was detained three weeks longer while the Gestapo attempted to persuade him to give damaging information about his friends. Hans was eventually released after his commanding officer had ensured the police that he was a good and loyal soldier. (16)

Sophie Scholl's arrest had a big impact on her political thinking. Elisabeth remembers a conversation she had with Sophie in the summer of 1939: "As time went on Sophie became increasingly disillusioned with the Nazis. On the day before England declared war in 1939 I went with her for a walk along the Danube and I remember I said: Hopefully there will be no war. And she said: Yes, I hope there will be. Hopefully someone will stand up to Hitler. In this she was more decisive than Hans." (17)

On the outbreak of the Second World War, Sophie's boyfriend Fritz Hartnagel, was serving in the German Army and a loyal supporter of Adolf Hitler. She wrote to him expressing her bitterness: "Now you'll surely have enough to do. I can't grasp that now human beings will constantly be put into mortal danger by other human beings. I can never grasp it, and I find it horrible. Don't say it's for the Fatherland." (18)

During the war Elisabeth Scholl became a children's nurse. On 23rd February, 1943, was waiting at a bus-stop when she glanced at the headline of the Voelkischer Beobachter. The headline, nearly made her faint as it was news that her brother and sister, Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl, and a family friend, Christoph Probst, had been beheaded for high treason. They had all been found guilty of distributing anti-Nazi leaflets. (19)

A few days after Sophie and Hans were executed, Elisabeth, along with her father, mother, and sister, Inge, were arrested. They were all put into solitary confinement. "For Elisabeth, this meant a bare cell with just a jug of water, a Bible and a cellar of salt. She was held for two months under wretched conditions, freed only when she contracted a kidney and bladder infection." (20)

In August 1943, they were tried and although Robert received a two-year sentence, the women were found not guilty. (21) Elisabeth later recalled: "We were outcasts. Many of my father's clients - he was a tax accountant - wanted to have nothing more to do with the family. It was always nothing personal - just because of the business. Passers-by took to the other side of the road." (22)

With the arrival of Allied troops Robert Scholl was released and appointed mayor of Ulm. (23) On his return from the war Fritz Hartnagel, the former boyfriend of Sophie Scholl, helped Elisabeth to get a job. It was the begining of a romance that led to marriage and the birth of four sons. (24) They both became active in the peace movement and gave advice to youthful conscientious objectors. (25)

In January 2014, the 93 year-old Elisabeth Hartnagel-Scholl, gave an interview to the world's media. As the Daily Mirror pointed out: "Now she is the only one of five Scholl children left alive. Her other brother Werner was an army medic who vanished on the eastern front. Her other sister Inge died in 1998. Though she was shunned by many Germans after the executions, Elisabeth went on to marry her sister’s devastated boyfriend and enjoy a long and happy marriage before his death in 2001". (26)

It was a cold winter's day in 1943 when three students threw a pamphlet into the stairwell at Munich's Ludwig Maximillian university, the last of six they had distributed decrying Nazism.

The young activists wanted to call attention to the crimes being committed in Russia in their name - the mass shootings of Jews, the burning of villages, the barbarity of the war Hitler proclaimed to be 'without rules' in his bid to crush the Slavic 'subhumans.'

And their writings recounted the heavily suppressed story of how the Wehrmacht had been stunningly defeated at Stalingrad a month earlier - a battle which proved the turning point of the war.

But, unbeknownst to them, a janitor at the university spotted their surreptitious leaflet drop and reported them to the Gestapo, the Hitler regime's feared secret police.

Twenty-four hours later, they were under arrest and, within days Sophie Scholl, her brother Hans, 24, and their friend Christoph Probst, also 24, were all beheaded for treason.

Now, 71 years later, the guillotine used to carry out the gruesome sentence has been found gathering dust in the basement of a Munich museum, triggering a debate in Germany about whether it should go on show, or remain locked out of sight forever.

For one elderly woman in particular it has pulled into sharp focus all the pain, anguish and terror she experienced over seven decades ago when her younger sister and elder brother went bravely to their deaths.

Elisabeth Hartnagel-Scholl is the last surviving sibling of Hans and Sophie Scholl, two of the young martyrs who dared to challenge the world's most sinister tyranny and paid the ultimate price in doing so.

Now a 93-year-old widow, she lives alone in Stuttgart, but she clearly remembers the day that she discovered her brother and sister had died beneath the flashing blade of the guillotine.

Children’s nurse Elisabeth Scholl was drinking a cup of coffee on a cold day in February as she waited for a bus. As she sipped she glanced at a newspaper. And the front-page headline almost made her faint.

This was Nazi Germany in 1943, the newspaper was a propaganda sheet called Voelkischer Beobachter – the People’s Observer – and the news filled Elisabeth, only 22, with disbelief, shock and pain.

It reported how her sister Sophie, her brother Hans and their friend Christoph Probst had all been guillotined the previous day – beheaded for high treason.

Now, 71 years later, that guillotine has come to light in the basement of a Munich museum. It has triggered a debate in Germany about whether such a hideous instrument should go on display in memory of Sophie and her fellow resisters.

For Elisabeth Hartnagel-Scholl, now 93, the discovery has brought memories flooding back. Now she is the only one of five Scholl children left alive. Though she was shunned by many Germans after the executions, Elisabeth went on to marry her sister’s devastated boyfriend and enjoy a long and happy marriage before his death in 2001.

“It was February 23 1943 when I read my brother and sister were no longer alive,” said Elisabeth at her home in Stuttgart. “They had been executed the day before in Stadelheim prison near Munich.”

Sophie, 21, Hans 24, and Christoph, 24, were members of resistance group called White Rose. Their crime was to distribute leaflets listing Nazi crimes in Russia and the crushing defeat of the Germany Sixth Army at Stalingrad the previous month – a turning point in the Second World War.

A leaflet they threw into a stairwell of Munich’s Ludwig Maximillian University was the last of six. But they were seen by the janitor, reported to the Gestapo and arrested within 24 hours. After four days they went before a rabidly Nazi judge and were executed the same day.

Kristallnacht (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler's Early Life (Answer Commentary)

Heinrich Himmler and the SS (Answer Commentary)

Trade Unions in Nazi Germany (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler v John Heartfield (Answer Commentary)

Hitler's Volkswagen (The People's Car) (Answer Commentary)

Women in Nazi Germany (Answer Commentary)

German League of Girls (Answer Commentary)

The Assassination of Reinhard Heydrich (Answer Commentary)

The Last Days of Adolf Hitler (Answer Commentary)

(1) Richard F. Hanser, A Noble Treason: The Story of Sophie Scholl (1979) page 34

(2) Anton Gill, An Honourable Defeat: A History of German Resistance to Hitler (1994) page 183

(3) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose (1986) page 14

(4) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(5) Richard F. Hanser, A Noble Treason: The Story of Sophie Scholl (1979) page 32

(6) Anton Gill, An Honourable Defeat: A History of German Resistance to Hitler (1994) page 184

(7) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(8) Inge Scholl, The White Rose: 1942-1943 (1983) page 8

(9) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose (1986) page 38

(10) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(11) Inge Scholl, The White Rose: 1942-1943 (1983) page 13

(12) James Taylor and Warren Shaw, Dictionary of the Third Reich (1987) page 168

(13) Richard F. Hanser, A Noble Treason: The Story of Sophie Scholl (1979) page 68

(14) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(15) Richard F. Hanser, A Noble Treason: The Story of Sophie Scholl (1979) page 69

(16) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose (1986) page 44

(17) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(18) Sophie Scholl, letter to Fritz Hartnagel (1st September, 1939)

(19) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed by the Daily Mirror (17th January, 2014)

(20) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(21) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose (1986) page 167

(22) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed by the Daily Mirror (17th January, 2014)

(23) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose (1986) page 181

(24) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed in The Daily Mail (18th January, 2014)

(25) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose (1986) page 181

(26) Elisabeth Scholl, interviewed by the Daily Mirror (17th January, 2014)


Elisabeth Scholl sang als erstes Mädchen im Knabenchor ihres Heimatortes, bei den Kiedricher Chorbuben. Die Rolle des 1. Knaben in Mozarts Zauberflöte (1982/1983–1987) am Hessischen Staatstheater in Wiesbaden verstärkte den Wunsch, Sängerin zu werden. Nach dem Abitur studierte sie zunächst Musikwissenschaft, Anglistik und Kunstgeschichte an der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz und erhielt privaten Gesangsunterricht bei Eduard Wollitz. Im Anschluss absolvierte sie ein Aufbaustudium in Alter Musik an der Schola Cantorum Basiliensis bei René Jacobs und Richard Levitt sowie das Opernstudio der Musikakademie Basel. Seither sang sie mit renommierten Ensembles der Alten Musik wie dem Freiburger Barockorchester, der Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin, Concerto Köln, Anima Eterna und Cantus Cölln.

Elisabeth Scholl ist die Schwester des Countertenors Andreas Scholl.

Auftritte und Repertoire Bearbeiten

Elisabeth Scholl ist bei vielen großen europäischen Festivals als Solistin eingeladen (Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, Rheingau Musik Festival, Lufthansa Festival London, Festwochen Luzern, Festival van Vlaanderen, Händel-Festspiele in Halle, Göttingen und Karlsruhe, BBC Proms u. a.) und arbeitet mit Dirigenten wie René Jacobs, Jos van Immerseel, Frieder Bernius, Enoch zu Guttenberg, Bruno Weil, Nicholas McGegan, Sir Neville Marriner zusammen. Ihr Repertoire und zahlreiche CD-Einspielungen mit Werken von Alessandro Grandi bis in die Romantik spiegeln ihre stilistische Vielseitigkeit wider. Neben ihrer Konzerttätigkeit im Bereich der Alten Musik gibt sie Liederabende und war an verschiedenen europäischen Opernhäusern mit Rollen von Händel und Vivaldi bis Mozart als Gast engagiert.

Zum Wintersemester 2009/2010 erhielt sie den Ruf als Professorin für Barockgesang an die Musikhochschule in Nürnberg und ist seit dem Sommersemester 2018 Professorin für Gesang an der Hochschule für Musik Mainz. [1] [2]


A BRIEF HISTORY

In September 1953, the Director of Education was approached by the Committee of Management of the Handicapped Children’s Association to provide education for the 23 children in their care. The Director enlisted the co-operation of the Anglican Church Board (now known as the Anglican Board of Education Management), which managed the neighbouring St. Crispin’s Anglican School.

Miss Esme Carr was released from the St. Crispin Anglican School and became the first teacher at the Princess Elizabeth Home. Two weeks later, Mrs Claris Manswell-St Luis established a half-day (2 ½ hrs each morning) educational programme. Mrs Manswell-St Luis became the First Principal of the school.

With the addition of another teacher in 1957 during the outbreak of poliomyelitis, the student population increased to 60.

In 1969 the first students at the school enrolled to sit the national Common Entrance Examination.

1970 the admission policy was amended to include children with learning disabilities even if they did not have a disability. Due to efforts of Dr E.L. Robinson in conjunction with an increase in the student population and a widening curriculum, the school received its first building. The School is built to accommodate 100 students on the premises adjacent to the Princess Elizabeth Centre, donated by the Port of Spain City Council. The Rotary Club of Port of Spain donated 1/3 the cost, with the Government of Trinidad and Tobago providing the balance as well as the furniture and equipment for the school. Architects Mr Claude Guillaume and Mr Bernard Broadbridge, who gave their services voluntary, designed the school.

On January 17th, 1980, the Honourable Minister of Education, Dr Cuthbert Joseph formally opened the Princess Elizabeth Special School for the Physically Handicapped (formally the Princess Elizabeth Home). In a 1981 Cabinet Decision, the school came under the educational supervision of the Special Education Unit established within the Ministry of Education.

Thirty-four years later the school was expanded with the construction of a three (3) room prefabricated building, in a partnership between the Trinidad and Tobago Government and the United States Military.

The Princess Elizabeth Centre (PEC) supports the school daily by proving special support services via the Centre’s personnel, these include:

 Feeding and personal sanitary services

 Transportation for students who live within the school’s catchment as well as on field trips.

Student Support Services Division of the Ministry of Education of Trinidad and Tobago provides additional support in the form of a Guidance Counsellor and a Social Worker. The school is now under the direct supervision of the Port of Spain and Environs Educational District Office.


History

Elisabeth Morrow, the daughter of Elizabeth Cutter Morrow and Dwight Morrow, financier and the Ambassador to Mexico, was passionate about the education of children. Throughout her adolescent years, she envisioned a school where students would develop academically, socially and ethically within a supportive environment. Upon completion of her education at Smith College and along with classmate Constance Chilton, Elisabeth's long-awaited dream of providing a quality education in early childhood became a reality in 1930. With smiles and outstretched hands, Elisabeth and Constance greeted 40 students at the doorstep of The Little School, located in a home on Linden Avenue in Englewood.

In 1936, the school moved into its new residence at 435 Lydecker Street in Englewood, the site of Elisabeth Morrow's childhood home. Since the relocation, the school has expanded to more than 400 children from three-years-old to eighth grade. Today, the school maintains a 14-acre campus with six buildings that include state-of-the-art technology labs, gymnasiums, science labs and libraries as well as an athletic field, nature trails, working gardens and playgrounds.


Sophie Scholl and the White Rose

Sophie Scholl and the White Rose movement, while less known to Americans, is a powerful example of youthful resistance to the Nazi Regime.

Within the United States, Sophie Magdalena Scholl is not the best-known resistance fighter, but her story is a powerful one. She was a key member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose)—a resistance group run by students at the University of Munich who distributed leaflets and used graffiti to decry Nazi crimes and the political system, while calling for resistance to the Nazi state and the war. On February 22, 1943, she was beheaded for treason at just 21 years old.

Sophie was born in May 1921, the fourth of six children to an upper-middle class family in the south of Germany. Robert, her father, was mayor of Forchtenberg, an idyllic town in the northeast of the modern state of Baden-Württemberg. When Sophie was 10, the family moved to Ulm, a mid-size southern town dating back to the Middle Ages, where her father worked as state auditor and tax consultant.

After the Nazis came to power in January 1933, Sophie, along with most of her siblings, was an excited and happy follower of the National Socialist cult of youth. The teenager believed in the ideals propagated at the time. Similar to many of their contemporaries, Sophie was particularly intrigued by the focus on nature and communal experiences. She joined the BDM, the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls) and quickly rose in their ranks. The parents, especially her father, did not like their children’s’ involvement in the Nazi youth groups and made no secret about it. A critic of the party from the beginning, who had raised their children firmly grounded in the Christian tradition, Robert Scholl viewed the developments in Germany and their children’s interest in Nazism with growing fear and horror. Lively discussions were a daily occurrence at the dinner table, teaching the children the value of open and honest conversation—a rarity at the time.

Sophie’s siblings, especially her oldest brother Hans, later to become a founding member of the Weiße Rose, also were members of non-Nazi groups of young people. These associations shared and propagated a love for nature, outdoor adventures, as well as the music, art and literature of German Romanticism. Originally seen as compatible with Nazi ideology by many, these alternative groups were slowly dissolved and finally banned by 1936. Hans remained active in one such group, however, and was arrested in 1937 along with several of the Scholl siblings. This arrest left a mark on Sophie’s conscience and began the process that eventually turned her from happy supporter of the Nazi system to active resistance fighter.

On September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland and two days later, France and Britain declared war on Germany. The older Scholl brothers were sent off to fight on the front. Sophie’s life in Ulm changed as well. She graduated high school in the spring of 1940 and started an apprenticeship to become a kindergarten teacher. She eventually wanted to study biology and philosophy. In order to be admitted, students had to spend a period of time working for the state in the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD National Labor Service). Sophie’s hopes that becoming a teacher would allow her to substitute for the RAD were quashed and she instead had to enter the service in the spring of 1941. She hated it. The military-like regimen and mind-numbing routine caused her to find solace in her own spirituality, guided by readings of theologian Augustine of Hippo. She wrote down her thoughts, noting that her “soul was hungry"—she longed for an autonomous life, an end to the war, and for happiness with her boyfriend Fritz Hartnagel, who was now fighting on the Eastern front. Her doubts about the regime grew.

When she finally moved to Munich to study biology and philosophy in May 1942, her brother Hans, a medical student at the same university, and some of his friends had already begun to actively question the system. Serving on the Eastern Front, they learned about the crimes committed in Poland and Russia first hand and saw the misery with their own eyes. They knew they couldn’t remain quiet. Starting in June 1942, they began printing and distributing leaflets in and around Munich, calling their fellow students and the German public to action. Other members of their circle joined in the endeavor, writing four pamphlets until the fall of the same year. As a student, Sophie had seen the flyers and applauded their content as well as their authors’ courage to speak truth to power. When she found out about her brother’s involvement, she demanded to join the group. She did not want to stay passive anymore.

The White Rose was a small endeavor with large consequences. At its core were siblings Hans and Sophie Scholl, their fellow students Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, and a professor of philosophy and musicology at the University of Munich, Kurt Huber. Together they published and distributed six pamphlets, first typed on a typewriter, then multiplied via mimeograph. At first, they only distributed them via mail, sending them to professors, booksellers, authors, friends and others—going through phone books for addresses and hand-writing each envelope. In the end, they distributed thousands, reaching households all over Germany. Acquiring such large amounts of paper, envelopes, and stamps at a time of strict rationing without raising suspicion was problematic, but the students managed by engaging a wide-ranging network of supporters in cities and towns as far north as Hamburg, and as far south as Vienna. These networks were also activated to distribute the pamphlets, attempting to trick the Gestapo into believing the White Rose had locations all across the country.

In reading the group’s leaflets today, one cannot help but think of how chillingly accurate they were in their accusations and calls to action, and the powerful insights they provide about Nazi Germany: The third pamphlet reads:

“Our current ‘state’ is the dictatorship of evil. We know that already, I hear you object, and we don’t need you to reproach us for it yet again. But, I ask you, if you know that, then why don’t you act? Why do you tolerate these rulers gradually robbing you, in public and in private, of one right after another, until one day nothing, absolutely nothing, remains but the machinery of the state, under the command of criminals and drunkards?”

In their attempt to gain traction for the resistance and to stop the war effort, they gave clear advice and advocated sabotage of Hitler’s war machine. Their fifth pamphlet stated: “And now every convinced opponent of National Socialism must ask himself how he can fight against the present ‘state’ in the most effective way….We cannot provide each man with the blueprint for his acts, we can only suggest them in general terms, and he alone will find the way of achieving this end: Sabotage in armament plants and war industries, sabotage at all gatherings, rallies, public ceremonies, and organizations of the National Socialist Party. Obstruction of the smooth functioning of the war machine….Try to convince all your acquaintances…of the senselessness of continuing, of the hopelessness of this war of our spiritual and economic enslavement at the hands of the National Socialists of the destruction of all moral and religious values and urge them to passive resistance!”

In January 1943, the group felt empowered and hopeful. Their activism seemed to be working, rattling the authorities and sparking discussions amongst their peers. Their group was well-organized and they were about to set up even more connections to other underground resistance groups. Observing the political situation in Germany in January of 1943, Sophie and the White Rose members believed a change in the country was imminent. The German army’s disastrous defeat at Stalingrad was a turning point on the Eastern Front, and voices of dissent grew louder at the University of Munich after students were publicly called out as leeches and war resisters. This encouraged them to work more boldly, distributing the flyers directly in person and writing slogans like “Down with Hitler” and “Freedom” on the walls around Munich. Their sixth—and last—pamphlet reads: “Even the most dull-witted German has had his eyes opened by the terrible bloodbath, which, in the name of the freedom and honour of the German nation, they have unleashed upon Europe, and unleash anew each day. The German name will remain forever tarnished unless finally the German youth stands up, pursues both revenge and atonement, smites our tormentors, and founds a new intellectual Europe. Students! The German people look to us! The responsibility is ours: just as the power of the spirit broke the Napoleonic terror in 1813, so too will it break the terror of the National Socialists in 1943.”

Hans and Sophie distributed them at their university on February 18, for their fellow students to find walking between classes. At some point, in what we can assume was an attempt to make even more people see the flyers, Sophie pushed a stack off a railing unto the central hall. What is now an iconic scene in every movie and documentary about the group, was the moment that changed everything. The pamphlet drop was seen by a janitor, a staunch supporter of the Nazis, who had Hans and Sophie immediately arrested by the Gestapo. The draft for the seventh pamphlet was still in Hans’ bag, which led to Christoph Probst’s arrest the same day.

The three endured a mock trial after long and arduous interrogations. They took all blame for the White Rose’s actions. This attempt to save their friends from persecution failed in the end, and Willi Graf, Alexander Schmorell, and Kurt Huber were arrested later in February and put to death shortly after.

After a half-day trial led by the infamous Roland Freisler, president of the People’s Court, Hans, Sophie, and Christoph were sentenced to death for treason. Despite this horrific prospect, Sophie did not waver. Freisler asked her as the closing question whether she hadn’t “indeed come to the conclusion that [her] conduct and the actions along with [her] brother and other persons in the present phase of the war should be seen as a crime against the community?” Sophie answered:

“I am, now as before, of the opinion that I did the best that I could do for my nation. I therefore do not regret my conduct and will bear the consequences that result from my conduct.”

Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl, and Christoph Probst were executed by guillotine on February 22, 1943.

While their deaths were only barely mentioned in German newspapers, they received attention abroad. In April, The New York Times wrote about student opposition in Munich. In June 1943, Thomas Mann, in a BBC broadcast aimed at Germans, spoke of the White Rose’s actions. The text of the sixth leaflet was smuggled into the United Kingdom where they were reprinted and dropped over Germany by Allied planes in July of the same year.

In post-war Germany, the White Rose was and is revered. A myriad of schools, streets, and a prestigious award are named after individual members, the group or the siblings Scholl. Sophie’s story looms especially large in the history of Ulm, my hometown. She personifies the importance of acting according to one’s beliefs and of following your conscience, even in the face of great sacrifice. In our collective memory, her story reminds us to not be silent, and fight for what Sophie wrote on the back of her indictment a day before she was killed: Freiheit—Freedom.

Tanja B. Spitzer

Tanja B. Spitzer, a native of Germany who came to New Orleans a little over a decade ago to study at Tulane University, is an expert on transatlantic history and cultural diplomacy.


Does Scientology put Elisabeth Moss at odds with Hollywood?

Elisabeth Moss' apprehension toward discussing Scientology does set her apart from other Hollywood adherents like John Travolta or Tom Cruise, but her reluctance has also probably helped her reputation in the non-Scientology wing of Hollywood. One fellow actress that Moss does find herself at odds with is Leah Remini, who famously exited the group and has been outspoken since. When Remini accepted an Emmy for her docu-series Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath in 2017, Moss stood up and left the room, per Metro U.K.

The same year, Remini spoke about Moss specifically (via ELLE Australia), saying, "Elisabeth Moss believes that she can't talk to me. because I've spoken out against Scientology. And knowing that, I wouldn't put her in the awkward position." She explained that the two aren't really feuding, but with a caveat: "I don't hold anything against Elisabeth Moss other than she's continuing to support a group that is abuse and destroying families. That's for her to learn — just as I needed to learn it."

Moss' adherence to Scientology is also believed to have been part of the reason for her divorce from SNL alum Fred Armisen. The marriage only lasted about eight months, with Us Weekly (via Daily Mail) reporting, "Her religion was as important to her as their marriage, if not more," which proved a stumbling block when Armisen "could not get with it."


The Hidden History of Hans Scholl

A leader of the rebel student group, The White Rose, who fought against the Nazi regime and was ultimately arrested and executed for his actions- alongside his sister Sophie and friend Cristoph- Hans Scholl is undoubtedly a hero of history.

But in recent years Hans story has largely been overshadowed, at least in terms of the popular historical narrative, by his sister, Sophie. And that make sense. Sophie Scholl has become one of the most well known women in modern history. Growing up she pretty much the first (non royal) female figure from history that I learnt about in depth she was on my school curriculum, there were countless books and films about her and every year on her death social media goes into a flurry remembering this incredible young woman. So is it unfair that when raising up women in an incredibly over saturated historical narrative, sometimes those men that stood with them will become a footnote. Of course. Is it understandable? Sadly, yes.

But we can’t let that happen to Hans Scholl. Here’s why:

  1. We’re just realising that a huge part of Hans story has been intentionally buried. He was most likely bisexual, and before his work with The White Rose he had actually been arrested for homosexuality.
  2. More importantly – because Hans challenges what we think a hero is.

He didn’t just start on the wrong side of history, he was at the 1936 Nuremberg rally as a poster-boy for the Nazi regime.

It’s so easy to look at history and say ‘I would have been the one to stand up, risk it all and fight’, it’s much harder to do. And that’s why we need stories like Hans, especially in the current global political climate! So, without further ado, lets dive into the hidden history of Hans Scholl.

The Scholl siblings with their Dad Robert – Inge, Hans, Elisabeth, Sophie and Werner

Born in 1918 in Forchtenberg Hans was the second oldest of his siblings, Inge, Elisabeth, Sophie, Werner and Thilde.

He joined The Hitler Youth, with his brothers and sisters all following suit. But though the siblings all revelled in their roles in this new nation creating youth group, their parents weren’t so keen.

Their father, Robert, was incredibly against the rising Nazi Regime. A former mayor, he’d actually been kicked out of office for his progressive views. But this didn’t stop him from still vocalising his thoughts against Hitlers rise to power. And so the Scholl children joined the Hitler Youth against their parents wishes. No matter how much Robert debated Hitler and his government’s policies with his children, they just rolled their eyes. As Elisabeth later said, the reason behind the kids refusal to budge was one as old as time:

‘We just dismissed it: he’s too old for this stuff, he doesn’t understand’

Their dad was from a different generation, one whose future ambitions were limited, a hangover from the nationwide social and economic scarring from Germany’s defeat in WW1. And so, his children thought that there was just no way he could get the kind of bold promises that were being made by Adolf Hitler under the guise of National Socialism.

Hans believed in the promise of the Nazis. A future lay before him full of opportunity and better yet it was a future where he was more than wanted. Tall, strong, smart, blonde and blue eyed, Hans was the ideal young man for Germany’s future. Even being chosen as a flag bearer at 1936’s Nuremberg Rally.

He was prepped as a potential high ranking official in the parties future. Hans natural leadership skills nurtured and honed.

But that’s not to say that Hans hadn’t started to notice things that jarred. At the Nuremberg Rally, he met party leaders whose extreme views shocked him. With these men there was no room for debate or discussion on how things should or could be. Their world view was set in stone, the Nazi ideology the only true answer. They would even dictate what Hans could read, with a leader snatching a book by one of the era’s most popular authors, the Jewish born, Stefan Zweig, out of Hans’ hands, declaring it to be banned.

Still Hans continued. He returned to his normal life, now a Hitler Youth troop leader.

Though his day to day was struck through to the core with the Nazi ideals, their ever rising power everywhere, Hans life felt a world away from the zealotry of the Nuremberg Rally. But then Hans allowed his troop to create their own banner. Intertwining the organisations existing banner with meaningful tributes from the boys own lives and community. And the unbudging might of the Nazi Regime came crashing down. Hans was out, his role as a Hitler Youth Leader gone.

At the same time, as Hans run in with the regime, the Scholl siblings noticed that their Jewish classmates were leaving school. Sophie, was disciplined for performing a poem by a Jewish poet. And all the while there were whispered stories of young people being spirited away to camps after speaking out against the party.

Suddenly they realised their parents had been right all along. As the new order that the Scholl siblings had believed in so deeply mutated into something entirely different, all they could do was huddle ever closer together as the world around them span out of control.

Hans and his brother Werner

Possibly seeking some escape, teenage Hans and Werner both joined a chapter of the German Youth Movement. For a few hours they could lose the harsh realities of home and flee to the woods hiking, swimming and singing round campfires.

But the respite didn’t last long and in 1937, at nineteen, Hans was conscripted to carry out mandatory military duties.

By all accounts Hans did well in the army. Just like in his Hitler Youth days he was held in esteem by his superiors. He joined the Calvary and it was expected that he despite his previous indiscretions, this young man would achieve great things.

But that didn’t happen. Because on December 13 1937, Hans was arrested by the Gestapo.

Hans was arrested along with his brother Werner and sisters, Inge and Sophie, as well as several other youths. They were accused of being in an illegal youth group, which was true.

In 1936 most youth groups outside of government sanctioned ones, were outlawed. So those days Hans had spent in hiking and camping with his friends were illegal.

Still, this was a minor infraction committed by well behaved middle class kids. And so Sophie, Inge and Werner were released.

But Hans was kept incarcerated. It had come out during the investigation that he had committed a far greater crime:

Homosexuality

Hans had fallen for another boy in his youth group, Rolf Futterknecht. The two shared an teenage romance the kind of idlic first love whose relationship blossomed throughout their weekend camping trips.

There’s little to suggest that this relationship outlived the typical teenage relationship, but as with any first love, it left a lasting impact. Which could explain why, despite Rolf having admitted to the affair under questioning, by the time Hans was interrogated he still sought to shield Rolf from the full criminal impact, saying:

‘I must admit I am the guilty party. To some extent I was seen by (Rolf) as someone in a position of authority to who he subordinated himself.’

Though later in the interrogation saying:

‘I can only justify my actions on the basis of the great love I felt’

Rolf was spared being charged, in return for testifying against Hans.

Ultimately Hans was found guilty.

But he was lucky. Thanks to his previous roles in the Hitler Youth and already strong military record, a lot of people came out to bat for him during sentencing. All of this combined meant that Hans’ judge was persuaded to let him go free. Putting it all down to youthful ‘indiscretion’.

Hans was lucky. His friend, Ernst Reden was not. A fellow member of the illegal youth group, Ernst was also put on trial for homosexuality and was sentenced to a term in a concentration camp, where he would join hundreds of other men and women, all guilty of the same ‘crime’. By the end of the Nazi regime, thousands of those branded with the pink triangle badge would perish inside the camps.

Much later, Hans surviving family would choose not to let this part of his life become public knowledge, perhaps scared that his sexuality and arrest might in some way stop people from remembering him as a ‘hero’. This chapter of Hans’ life was missing, glossed over and was only uncovered in full recently when historians started re-examining the Gestapo transcripts from the trial.

Alexander Schmorell and Hans in their military uniforms

Following his trial, Hans wrote in his diary:

‘If you tear our hearts from our bodies, you yourselves will burn to death for it’

Inwardly, he may have started to battle against the dictatorship he now lived under, but that’s not what Hans was portraying to the outside world.

He was a young man who had just gone through a hugely traumatic experience. He now knew the full ramifications that being ‘caught’ in love could cause. Yes, he wanted to speak out -after all he’d done so before – but at what cost? Hans knew full well that you didn’t get three strikes in Nazi Germany – one more arrest and he’d be out.

So he quietly continued his life. He gained a place to study medicine in Munich and when World War Two kicked off, he worked as a medic on the front line.

Here he met other young men, who like him had hopefully believed in the Nazis promised utopian future and were now getting their legs blown off for their trouble.

He slept in homes whose families had been thrown into the street, shipped off or now lay dead nearby. He saw not only the horrors of war but realised the emerging scale of the atrocities that were now being carried out at home.

Then, in 1942 Hans’ father was arrested. Robert was reported for speaking out against Hitler and the war, and was sentenced to four months in prison. The family rallied around their father as best they could. They wrote to him every two weeks (all they were allowed to do) with Sophie attempting to see her father by playing music for him under the prison window she believed him to be in.

Hans was on the front line when the arrest happened. Away from home, he hoped he might be able to help by using his position in the army to plead for clemency on behalf of his dad. But he was talked out of doing so by a senior in the army. Feeling powerless he wrote to his mum:

“…I think so much about father, and in the way it can only happen in Russia, I shoot up the whole tone-scale of my personality to the highest tone of rage”

That rage boiled inside him. Hans knew how unstoppable the Nazi regime was. The unthinkable damage it would do if allowed to continue. Yes he knew the risks, but someone had to speak up. To fight tyranny with fact and freedom of thought. Slowly his rage evolved into resolve. And by the time Hans arrived back in Munich to continue his studies, he was a fully changed man.

The White Rose was ready to bloom.

Hans, his sister Sophie and Cristoph Probst, leaders of the White Rose

The White Rose has gone down in history as arguably the most well known civilian resistance group to fight the Nazi regime. Primarily made up of students, they were the antithesis to the brutality they sought to bring down. Utilising intellectual passive protest to both oppose and spread awareness of the atrocities being committed by the regime.

There is no true historical consensus on exactly how the White Rose was formed. However we do know that Hans was at the heart of its conception, along with fellow students, Alexander Schmorell, Juegen Wittenstien, Christopher Probst, Will Graf and Hans younger sister, Sophie. The group committed themselves to turning the tide against Hitlers regime. And unlike the Nazis they vowed not to change minds by brute force, but by arming people with the truth.

Protest graffiti was painted in the dead of night, secret meetings held and an illegal printing factory created.

The groups numbers swelled, secretly assisted and advised by one of the university’s staff, Professor Huber. Hans soon emerged as the leader of the White Rose.

Time and time again, Hans was warned of the grave risk his actions put him in. That if caught, he’d pay the ultimate price. But Hans remained undeterred. He had a duty to tell people about the atrocities happening under their noses, to reach people that were, like he had once been, tied up into the Nazi regime. To show that there was another way.

And so when the White Rose’s printing press whirred into action, it marked hundreds of papers with the words:

‘We will not be silenced. We are your bad conscience.’

Text from the first White Rose leaflet, from The Holocaust Research Project

The group secretly organised to spread their leaflets through multiple German cities and targeted them both at the general population and directly mailed them to influential higher ups.

Their message was heard far and wide, as the group exposed hidden atrocities, and called for people to stand up and be heard in the struggle for freedom of speech.

On 18 February 1943, Hans and Sophie joined forces to arrange another leaflet drop. They set their sights on the main Munich University building, leaving bundles of leaflets outside lecture halls for students to come across after classes had finished. As they were about to leave, they realised a number of leaflets were leftover and so in the final push of the day, tossed them over a staircase onto the universities atrium floor. The leaflets lying as an inescapable carpet of protest for anyone entering or exiting the building.

But the pair were seen and quickly captured.

Evidence was gathered and Hans and Sophie were arrested, along with fellow White Rose member and a young father of three, Cristoph Probst, after a draft leaflet signed by him was found in one of the siblings rooms.

Gestapo mug shots of Sophie and Hans Scholl

Four days later on 22 February 1943, Christoph, Sophie and Hans were all made to take part in a show trial. The judge, Roland Freisler was notorious for both his harshness and for deciding sentencing before a trial had actually begun.

Hans and Sophie were both fortunate enough to be able to see their families in court. Christoph pleaded for the judge to think of his three children and now sick wife.

It fell on deaf ears. Freisler found all three guilty of treason and sentenced them to death. The sentence would be carried out that evening.

Before being rushed out of court, Hans managed to say goodbye to his parents, and urge his brother Werner, who was on the verge of tears to:

“stay strong. No compromises.”

That evening, after being allowed to briefly meet again one last time, brother, sister and friend, were all beheaded by guillotine. Hans’ last words were a defiant:

“Long live freedom”

But the story doesn’t end there. The rest of the Scholl family were arrested whilst they ate breakfast. It was an act of Sippenhaft, a German term that means families take responsibility for the action of their kin. Thousands more families like the Scholls would be arrested as WW2 marched on.

Professor Huber, along with students and White Rose members, Hans Leiput, Willi Graf, Alexander Schmorell were all executed after quick show trials.

This was quickly followed by more of the members being rounded up and either sent to the front line or to prison.

Then in late 1943, a group of Hamburg students who’d been inspired by The White Rose and were attempting to keep the movement alive, were captured. Reinhold Meyer, Katharina Leipelt, Elisabeth Lange, Greta Rolfe, Kurt Leiden, Friedrich Rudolf Geussenhainer, and Margarethe Mrosek, would all die, either from disease or hunger in prison, or hastily executed without trial as the war came to a close.

  • Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf, Katharina Leipelt, Friedrich Rudolf Geussenhainer, Margarethe Mrosek and Professor Huber

Shortly after Hans, Sophie and Cristoph’s deaths, the White Rose sixth, final and censored leaflet was liberated. Mass printed and released with the heading:

‘Despite everything their spirit lives on’

It was spread across Germany. Copies dropped as a form of peaceful bombing by The Royal Airforce. The leaflets wound their way around Europe before going trans Atlantic. They showed a side to the German people many on the allied side had forgotten. With anecdotal evidence, historians believe that the word of the White Rose even found its way into concentration camps.

To this day the White Rose remains a key part of world history, taught in school and a constant reminder that even the quietest voice can be heard through the darkness.

And that brings me back to why Hans Scholl’s story is so important.

‘Heroes’ aren’t born a’la Harry Potter. There’s no crack of green light and suddenly you’re the chosen one. It’s just normal people, with mistakes and pasts, but who make that difficult choice. And sometimes those people are remembered and celebrated. But sometimes, like Hans, they’re an ‘and’ parts of their history glossed over. Their story is just to spikey, there’s too much grey, there’s no clear hero moment. But the difference they made, big or small, still echoes.

So here’s to not only Hans, but all of the forgotten members of the White Rose. Whose true stories may just be being discovered, but whose legacies live on.


More German Immigrants to Virginia

Between 1717 and 1725, others arrived from the Kraichgau.

Some were related to the 1717 arrivals. Some were neighbors in Germany of the 1717 arrivals.

Others could have been here since 1717, but were either too young to be listed in 1717, or escaped official notice in the records.

Some who were traveling with the first wave in 1717 were left behind in England to wait for the next ship.

Whatever the reason for not being listed, some went to the Robinson River Valley at the same time as the earlier group and patented land in the same time period, while others stayed on their 1717 land near the village of York, which is now known as Stevensburg.

  • Zimmermann/Carpenter, Johann Wilhelm/William, and wife Elizabeth Castler/Kastler/Gessler
  • Zimmermann/Carpenter, Mathias, and wife Susanna Christina children: Matthias Friedrich, Anna Magdalena
  • Kabler/Cobbler, Christopher
  • Kabler/Cobbler, Frederick, and wife Barbara
  • Kabler/Cobbler, Nicholas
  • Wayland/Wieland, Thomas, and wife Mary children: Jacob and Catherine
  • Yowell/Uhl/Owell, Christoph, and wife Eva, children: Georg Frederich, Magdalena, Anna Catharina, Frederich David, Anna Barbara, Hans Jacob
  • Yowell/Uhl/Owell, Nicholas, and wife Catharine son Jacob Michael
  • Rouse/Rausch, John, and wife Maria/Mary
  • Tanner/Danner, Robert, and wife Mary and five children

Elisabeth Scholl - History

Elizabeth I as Princess
attributed to William Scrots

More Images

Born: 7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace

Became Queen: 17 November 1558

Coronation: 15 January 1559
Westminster Abbey

Died: 24 March 1603
Richmond Palace

Buried: 28 April 1603
Westminster Abbey

Elizabeth's life was troubled from the moment she was born. Henry VIII had changed the course of his country's history in order to marry Anne Boleyn, hoping that she would bear him the strong and healthy son that Catherine of Aragon never did. But, on September 7, 1533 in Greenwich Palace, Anne bore Elizabeth instead.

Anne did eventually conceive a son, but he was stillborn. By that point, Henry had begun to grow tired of Anne and began to orchestrate her downfall. Most, if not all, historians agree that Henry's charges of incest and adultery against Anne were false, but they were all he needed to sign her execution warrant. She was beheaded on the Tower Green on May 19, 1536, before Elizabeth was even three years old.

Elizabeth was probably at the royal manor at Hunsdon when her mother was arrested and executed after being at court for Christmas (and likely the last time she saw her mother). Henry had remarried and was eagerly awaiting the son he hoped Jane Seymour was carrying. As it turned out, she was indeed to bear Henry a son, Edward (future Edward VI). Jane died shortly after her son was born.

Elizabeth's last stepmother was Katherine Parr, the sixth queen to Henry VIII. Katherine had hoped to marry Thomas Seymour (brother to the late Queen Jane), but she caught Henry's eye. She brought both Elizabeth and her half-sister Mary back to court. When Henry died, she became the Dowager Queen and took her household from Court. Because of the young age of Edward VI, Edward Seymour (another brother of Jane's and therefore the young King's uncle) became Lord Protector of England.

Elizabeth went to live with the Queen Dowager Katherine, but left her household after an incident with the Lord Admiral, Thomas Seymour, who was now Katherine's husband. Just what occurred between Elizabeth and Thomas will never be known for sure, but rumors at the time suggested that Katherine had caught them kissing or perhaps even in bed together. Katherine was pregnant at the time of the incident. She later gave birth to a daughter named Mary. Katherine died not too long afterwards and was buried at Sudeley Castle. This left Thomas Seymour as an eligible bachelor once again.

Because Elizabeth was a daughter of the late King Henry VIII, she was in line to the throne (despite several attempts to remove her from the chain, she was in Henry's will as an heir) and was therefore a most sought-after bride. During the reign of Edward VI, Thomas Seymour asked for Elizabeth's hand in marriage, which she refused. From this incident, both Thomas and Elizabeth were suspected of plotting against the king. Elizabeth was questioned, but was never charged. Seymour however, after an attempt to kidnap the boy king, was arrested and eventually executed for treason. Elizabeth was reported to have said, upon hearing of the Lord Admiral's death (although it is probably apocryphal): "Today died a man of much wit, and very little judgment."

Edward may have contracted what was then called consumption (possibly tuberculosis) or had a severe respiratory infection. When it looked inevitable that the teenager would die without an heir of his own body, the plots for his crown began. Reports of the young King's declining health spurred on those who did not want the crown to fall to the Catholic Mary. It was during this time that Guilford Dudley married Lady Jane Grey, who was a descendant of Henry VIII's sister Mary, and was therefore also an heir to the throne. When Edward VI died in 1553, Jane was proclaimed Queen by her father Henry Grey and her father-in-law John Dudley, who rallied armies to support her. However, many more supported the rightful heir: Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Nine days after Jane was proclaimed Queen, Mary rode into London with her sister Elizabeth. Jane Grey and her husband Guilford were imprisoned in the Tower.

Shortly after becoming Queen, Mary was wed to Prince Philip of Spain, which made the Catholic Queen quite unpopular. The persecuted Protestants saw Elizabeth as their savior, since she was seen as an icon of "the new faith". After all, it was to marry her mother Anne Boleyn that Henry instituted the break with Rome. Because of this, several rebellions and uprisings were made in Elizabeth's name, although she herself probably had little or no knowledge of them. However, Mary sensed the danger from her younger sister, and imprisoned her in the Tower.

The story, possibly apocryphal, of Elizabeth's entry into the Tower is an interesting one. She was deathly (pun intended) afraid of the Tower, probably thinking of her mother's fate in that place, and when she was told she would be entering through Traitor's Gate, she refused to move. She had been secreted to the Tower in the dark so as not to raise the sympathy of supporters. That night was cold and rainy, and the Princess Elizabeth sat, soaking wet, on the stairs from the river to the gate. After her governess finally persuaded Elizabeth to enter, she did so and became yet another famous prisoner of the Tower of London.

Elizabeth was released from the Tower after a few months of imprisonment and was sent to Woodstock where she stayed for just under a year. When it appeared that Mary had become pregnant, Elizabeth was no longer seen as a significant threat and the Queen let her return to her residence at Hatfield, under semi- house arrest. Mary Tudor was nearly 40 years old when the news of her "pregnancy" came. After a few months, her belly began to swell, but no baby was ever forthcoming. Some modern historians think that she had a large ovarian cyst, and this is also what lead to her failing health and eventual death.

News of Mary's death on November 17, 1558 reached Elizabeth at Hatfield, where she was said to be out in the park, sitting under an oak tree. Upon hearing that she was Queen, legend has it that Elizabeth quoted the 118th Psalm's twenty-third line, in Latin: "A Dominum factum est illud, et est mirabile in oculis notris" -- "It is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes."


'An exceptional and rounded education that even private schools struggle to compete with.' (The Good Schools Guide, 2016)

“It’s the big day it’s Founder’s Day!” – the QE community gathered online to celebrate an illustrious past and look forward to a bright future

Queen Elizabeth’s School today celebrated Virtual Founder’s Day 2021 with an internet broadcast that featured a good measure of time-honoured tradition and a generous helping of innovation, all laced with.

Let the playing commence!

Scores of the School’s young musicians battle it out today in a competitive Pianoathon Challenge being held to raise money to buy pianos for the new Music School. Each of.

Our rich heritage open to all: proudly presenting QE Collections

Eighty-nine people joined a special Zoom event held to present QE Collections – Queen Elizabeth’s School’s new fully digitised online set of archives relating to the School and the Barnet.

Cherishing our traditions: QE’s youngest pupils find out about Founder’s Day in special event

With pandemic restrictions forcing the School’s Founder’s Day activities to move online for the second consecutive year, QE’s Year 7 learned about the day’s rich history and traditions in a.

From phantoms to whimsy – Rishi “beats QE’s poetic drum” in national competition

When the School put Rishi Watsalya forward for a national poetry recitation competition, he set out both to put smiles on the faces of his audience – and to send.


Watch the video: Elisabeth Scholl - Hensel - Sehnsucht (June 2022).


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