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The Spectator, a weekly periodical, was started by Robert Stephen Rintoul in 1828. Rintoul's objective was to produce a magazine of what he called "educated radicalism". The Spectator agreed with Lord John Russell and his Whig government's attempts to introduce parliamentary reform and supported the 1832 Reform Act.
In 1861 Richard Holt Hutton became joint editor and part owner of the journal. The journal gradually became more conservative and in the 1880s was a strong opponent of William Gladstone and his proposals for Irish Home Rule.
With the appointment of Herbert Asquith as editor, The Spectator became more liberal in its views. In the 1950s and 1960s the journal opposed capital punishment and advocated homosexual law reform.
Contributors to the magazine have included Ernst Toller, Graham Greene, Lytton Strachey, Evelyn Waugh, John Arlott and Peter Quennell. The Spectator is now the oldest continuously published magazine in the English language.
The first issue of the Spectator
The Spectator was first published on March 1st, 1711.
Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, friends from their schooldays at Charterhouse, created a new literary genre in Queen Anne’s time. In 1709 Steele launched the Tatler, with news, gossip, reviews and essays three days a week, to which Addison contributed. It ran until the beginning of 1711 and Addison and Steele started the Spectator on the first Thursday the following March.
Running to about 2,500 words an issue, it came out daily except Sunday. Issue No 1, after a Latin quotation from Horace, consisted entirely of an introduction by Addison as ‘Mr Spectator’. ‘I have observed,’ he began, ‘that a Reader seldom peruses a Book with Pleasure ‘til he knows whether the Writer of it be a black or a fair man, of a mild or cholerick Disposition, Married or a Batchelor, with other Particulars of the like nature…’ He accordingly supplied a biography of his fictitious self and observed that he lived in the world ‘rather as a spectator of mankind than as one of the species’.
In No. 2 Steele introduced Mr Spectator’s friends, who would feature in subsequent issues. The best remembered of them is Sir Roger de Coverley, supposedly the grandson of the man who invented the country dance. An old-fashioned Tory squire, he was thoroughly lovable, but his views could not be taken seriously in the modern Whig world. Steele presently involved Sir Roger with a woman of the streets on a visit to London, which annoyed Addison, who killed him off.
Swift and Pope both contributed to the Spectator, which concentrated on essays, such as Addison’s own on Fame, on Jealousy, on Poetic Justice. There were comments on manners and social customs of the day with not unaffectionate mockery of passing fads and fashions. Addison also wrote serious religious pieces and literary criticism.
Mr Spectator wrote in the second week: ‘I shall endeavour to enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality.’ So indeed he did and the magazine became highly regarded. It ran for 555 issues until December 1712.
A brief history of spectator sports
Most (but not all) of the sports which are super-popular with the public today were invented, improved and regulated in the independent private schools of Victorian Britain that is to say, what in England are still called ‘the public schools’, as opposed to state ones. The most popular of all – Soccer – was being played in early medieval England, and has always been an almost entirely working-class game.
However, cricket, rugby football, boxing, lawn tennis and athletics were amateur and encouraged (perhaps over-encouraged) in the public school ethos. Many if not all of the top British private schools considered success in sports as more important and significant than scholastic success – and leaders and authorities of the School were almost always chosen from the athletes.
Cricket was played in England from the early part of the thirteenth century, and spread as a natural process throughout the British Empire, especially India (which then included Pakistan), the Caribbean and Australasia. The sport was governed until 1970 by the MCC (Marylebone Cricket Club), founded at Lord’s in London in 1787: the MCC took the responsibility for codifying the game, and first allowed over-arm bowling in 1864. The first international event did not take place until 1877, when the ‘Test Match’ was played between the English team (also known as the MCC) and Australia. These two countries were the leaders in cricket until 1945, reaching a peak in the early Thirties, when the practice of ‘bodyline bowling’ (the bowler aiming the batsman instead of the wickets) became universal (though never necessarily popular).
‘Amateurs’ (unpaid sportsmen) and ‘professionals’ (earning money at the game) remained until 1962, after which all first-class cricket became wholly professional. The days of W.G. Grace and other great ‘amateur’ cricketers had vanished.
Not everybody knows that the essential rules of Association Football were laid down at Cambridge in 1843, but the Football Association (FA) was not founded in England until 20 years later. By 1940 there were forty thousand soccer clubs in it. FIFA was invented in France and means Fédération Internationale de Football Assocation – an appalling mixture of languages that has never been questioned or corrected. By the 1950s soccer was mostly professional, though players were not well paid, certainly not by today’s millionaire standards. Football crowds (spectators) reached the ten thousand mark by the 1880s, and at least one hundred and twenty thousand (depending on the size of the stadium) by the 20s. Betting on results (football pools) was rife by the 1890s. Length of the shorts worn by soccer players has varied greatly between the decades.
Soccer’s middle and upper-class rival was rugby football, an amateur game begun at Rugby School in 1823. The shape of the ball and the rules are entirely different from soccer. People considered rugby or rugger a ‘toff’s sport’ but it became enormously popular in working-class Wales. This game based on personal speed, size, strength, guts and kicking accuracy rapidly spread to other countries such as France, Scotland, Wales (of course), South Africa, New Zealand and many South American countries, notably Uruguay. But as a spectator sport rugger has never equalled soccer.
The North Americans invented their own version and called it American Football, and the Australians kept closer to the English rules but made the game more violent. England inevitably came up with a more working-class variant, calling it Rugby League, which was professional. The original game was then called Rugby Union to show the difference, and it had to wait a long time before becoming anything else but purely amateur.
The first World Tennis Championship was organized by the All England Croquet Club (my initials) at Wimbledon (London) in 1877. The game had developed from royal or real tennis which was so ancient it was a favourite of both Henry V and Henry VIII (when young) and many other European royalties. Tennis at Wimbledon, as well as everywhere else in the world, became enormously popular because of TV coverage. The same happened with horse-racing, known as ‘the sport of Kings’. Betting, naturally, had a lot to do with it.
Athletics and boxing have been around of course for thirty centuries or more, but the first ‘modern’ Olympic Games featuring these sports plus many more were organized in 1896. They have taken place every four years (more less, though wars have interrupted the process) ever since the Baron Coubertin’s original brainwave. One of the essential differences is that athletics used to be practised by men only, suitably undressed. This was not considered decent in the Victorian Age.
Motor-racing was tremendously popular with all classes almost as soon as the motor car was invented in the 1930s it was dominated by Mercedes-Benz, Alfa-Romeo, Bugatti and Ferrari, though Bentley cars from Britain won Le Mans six times later Jaguar cars dominated saloon car racing for many years in the 50s and early 60s. Today’s pure single-seat racing cars are miracles of engineering, and have remained remarkably safe considering they can reach nearly 300 mph on the straight.
Cycling also became popular in France, Italy and Spain between the Wars, and still excites millions on the telly. Sadly, professional cycling has produced the modern scourge, ‘exercise’ cyclists wholly dangerous to the public, dressed from head to foot like highly coloured wasps, the riders invariably worse-tempered than hornets, but equipped with highly colourful and always obscene vocabulary levelled at the motorists who try (usually) to avoid killing them.
Baseball was based by Americans on the British girls’ school sport ‘rounders’, and has become the Number One sport in the USA – professional since 1868. Basketball, the only international sport to have originated in the United States, was created in 1891. It was an instant success in high schools and colleges, and has remained so. It is also very popular in Spain, whose truly national pastime – bull fighting – has suffered a tremendous drop in popularity. Hunting animals on horseback used to be the number one sport among the highest classes in Europe, but has waned in popularity since governments began prohibiting it. There are many other true sports, including Swimming, Lacrosse, Archery etc., which have never become true spectator sports, in that the cursed television has never seriously taken them up.
The Spectator (UK)
These media sources are slightly to moderately conservative in bias. They often publish factual information that utilizes loaded words (wording that attempts to influence an audience by using appeal to emotion or stereotypes) to favor conservative causes. These sources are generally trustworthy for information but may require further investigation. See all Right-Center sources.
- Overall, we rate The Spectator UK Right-Center biased based on story selection and editorial positions that moderately favor the right. We also rate them Mostly Factual in reporting, rather than High, due to misleading articles and a few failed fact checks regarding climate change.
Bias Rating: RIGHT-CENTER
Factual Reporting: MOSTLY FACTUAL
Country: United Kingdom (35/180 Press Freedom)
Media Type: Magazine
Traffic/Popularity: Medium Traffic
MBFC Credibility Rating: HIGH CREDIBILITY
The Spectator is a weekly British conservative magazine. It was first published on 6 July 1828, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the English language. The magazine covers politics, culture, current affairs, and arts pages on books, music, opera, and film and TV reviews.
Many previous editors of The Spectator have gone on to have careers as conservative politicians. These include Boris Johnson (1999–2005) and other former cabinet members Iain Macleod, Ian Gilmour, and Nigel Lawson. The current editor is Fraser Nelson.
The Spectator also has the USA and Australian versions.
Funded by / Ownership
The Spectator is currently owned by David and Frederick Barclay, who also own the right-leaning The Daily Telegraph newspaper via Press Holdings. Revenue is generated through fee-based subscriptions and the sale of classifieds advertising.
Analysis / Bias
In review, The Spectator primarily covers politics and culture with a right-leaning bias in story selection. Headlines and articles usually contain moderately loaded language that favors the right such as this: Theresa May’s Brexit strategy has humiliated Britain and this Cambridge’s shameful decision to rescind Jordan Peterson’s visiting fellowship. Information contained in articles is typically properly sourced to credible media outlets or via direct quotes. The Spectator has also published misleading articles regarding climate change.
Editorially, The Spectator is generally Eurosceptic in outlook, favoring close ties with the United States rather than with the European Union and supporting Israel. In British politics, they are generally strongly opposed to the Labour Party and favor the Conservative Party and are often critical of Conservative Party Prime Minister Theresa May for not being strong enough on Brexit.
Failed Fact Checks
Overall, we rate The Spectator UK Right-Center biased based on story selection and editorial positions that moderately favor the right. We also rate them Mostly Factual in reporting, rather than High, due to misleading articles and a few failed fact checks regarding climate change. (D. Van Zandt 12/1/2016) Updated (9/17/2019)
Copeland Museum gleams into Black history
VSU’s Copeland African American Museum (CAAM) features different artifacts in Thaxton Hall with new hours provided for Black History Month.
CAAM has a wide-ranging number of precious artifacts of African American descent that help to create the heritage that exists today. This includes letters from historical figures, instruments that were played by bona fide artists and clips from events that paved the way we live today.
More artifacts include, but are not limited to, the autographed Muhammad Ali boxing gloves that started his career, a letter typed by Martin Luther King, Jr. and a short script written by Tupac.
CAAM’s mission is to honor and preserve historical artifacts that show how African American culture has provided for current times. By showing the different types of history, CAAM hopes to encourage conversations that engage diverse people.
The journey of the CAAM began in 2016 when Dr. Roy Copeland and his wife, Dr. Cheryl Copeland, created a space where people can be filled with American history, and be educated on the contributions that African Americans have made to the culture.
Touring CAAM will help you increase your knowledge as well as enhance your overall understanding of diversity and its importance to society today.
“The importance is to have tangible and close-by museum, because we are very rare,” TaMara Tolbert, a grad student who works at the museum, said. “There’s not many solely African American museums and especially on a college campus, so our duty is to continue to look for knowledge, to gain in-depth knowledge on things that people have done for us today and provoke conversation about where we are now, where we came from and all the way we can go.”
Tolbert said that the museum rotates its items for the people to view every six months, so they are encouraging people to check out what is displayed now before it changes in March.
The effects that COVID-19 have taken place for CAAM is that they must limit the amount of people, which limits the amount of influence and education provided by the museum.
Although, abiding by the gatherings of no more than 10 people is not a bad thing. By doing this, and maintaining the six-foot distance from one another, it makes for more personal tours given to a few people at a time rather than a big group.
The tours are small and intimate, and offer a way to ask questions. There’s also the possibility to learn some secrets and fun facts that the CAAM doesn’t normally share.
The museum faculty also likes to make sure that VSU students are told about future events, hours of operation and changing of the artifacts.
CAAM sent an email to all VSU students including a flier regarding their hours of operation, social media outlets and directions on how to reserve a parking spot.
CAAM is on campus in Thaxton Hall, suite 200. You can find Thaxton Hall on 2525 N. Patterson St. The hours of operation are 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Monday through Thursday, and 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. on Friday.
During Black History Month, the museum has extended its hours for Saturday and Sunday between 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
If you would like to call and make a tour reservation or set up an appointment for a group tour, call the museum’s office at (229) 245-2448.
The admission is free and open to the public, meaning that you do not have to be a student at VSU to get a good history lesson.
In order to park on VSU’s North Campus, you must email [email protected] at least 24 hours in advance of your desired tour date so you may receive your parking pass. Once you have a pass in your email, print, fill it out, and place it in your dashboard.
Written by Madison Gruber, staff writer. Photo courtesy of Bailey Storey.
Podcast #167: When Watching People Walk Was America’s Favorite Spectator Sport
Spectator sports are a multibillion dollar industry. Hundreds of millions of people watch sports worldwide whether on TV or in person, and the personal lives of athletes are fodder for news stories and television shows. Star professionals make huge salaries, plus they rake in boatloads more with endorsement deals.
But what’s interesting is that the money-making mania of today’s sports world was kicked off in the 19th century by the riveting, action-packed sport of….walking?
In Pedestrianism, writer Matthew Algeo takes a look at the long-forgotten sport of pedestrianism or competitive walking. During the 19th century, it was the absolute bees knees. Tens of thousands of people would fill arenas to watch mustachioed men compete for giant paydays by walking in circles for six days straight. While the history of pedestrianism is interesting in and of itself, Algeo also shows how it laid the groundwork for modern spectator sports.
In today’s podcast, Algeo and I discuss some of the more interesting and larger-than-life characters who competed in this old-time sport, as well as the ways in which it birthed the money-fueled sports industry of today. I think you’ll find the conversation anything but pedestrian!
- How a bet on the 1860 presidential election kickstarted the pedestrianism craze
- The insane distances walkers would traverse
- The bloused shirt-wearing, cane-carrying superstar of pedestrianism
- How the first doping scandal in sport occurred during a 19th century walking race
- The weird rules of pedestrianism
- How professional pedestrians paved the way for the mega-paid professional athlete
- Why watching people walk for days on end was so popular in the 19th century
- How pedestrianism was the first sport in America to break the “color barrier”
- Why pedestrianism declined
- How you too can take part in an old-time pedestrianism race today!
- And much more!
Pedestrianism was a fun and fascinating read. I found myself laughing out loud at several points. What’s more, by taking a microscope to a forgotten 19th century sport, Algeo is able to show readers the cultural currents of the 19th century that gave rise to many aspects of modern spectator sports.
Listen to the Podcast! (And don’t forget to leave us a review!)
Brett McKay: Brett McKay here, and welcome to another edition of the Art of Manliness podcast. Today, sports is a multi-billion dollar industry: football, basketball, soccer, baseball. I mean thousands upon thousands upon thousands of people come to watch these sports. They watch them on television. The athletes are making millions of dollars, hundreds of millions of dollars. There’s salary plus the endorsement deals that go along with it. Here’s the thing. This whole mega sports industry that we have today started with the super exciting sport that happened in the 19th century of competitive walking. Yes, I’m being serious.
My guest today dug up this long forgotten sport that really kicked off the modern sport era. His name is Matthew Algeo. He wrote a book called “Pedestrianism: When Watching People Walk Was America’s Favorite Spectator Sport.” It’s a fascinating look at a lost bit of American history that has a wider influence on sport today. Everything that we know about sport today with the endorsement deals, super high salaries, super high payouts, thousands of people watching a sport, this all started with competitive walking, which is really bizarre.
It happened during the late 19th century during a time that I like. It’s when boxing was coming to rise, John L. Sullivan. Teddy Roosevelt was coming to power. You had the rise of mass media, the rise of consumer culture, and all these things came together around competitive walking. Well, today on the podcast, Matthew Algeo and I discuss this long forgotten sport and how it influences sport today. It’s a really fun, interesting look into a forgotten bit of history. Without further ado, “Pedestrianism” with Matthew Algeo. Matthew Algeo, welcome to the show.
Matthew Algeo: Thank you. Thank you for inviting me.
Brett McKay: Well, you’re welcome. The reason I invited you, because I forgot where I heard about your book, but it’s talking about this obscure sport that I knew nothing about even though Gilded Age American is one of my favorite parts of American history. You have the rise of price fighting. We’ve got John L. Sullivan, the masthead of our website, Teddy Roosevelt, all this stuff, but I had no idea that there’s a sport called pedestrianism, which is just basically walking, was the most popular sport in American for about 40 years. I’m curious, how did you come across this bit of forgotten American history?
Matthew Algeo: Yeah, it’s definitely been forgotten. I was actually researching a book about eight or nine years ago about the 1943 merger of the Steelers and the Eagles. You might be aware of this. They were the Steagles for a season because in 1943, during WWII, the teams were so short of players they had to merge two teams, so they merged the Steelers and the Eagles. I was writing a book about the Steagles. While I was researching that book I did some research on the history of spectator sports in the United States. I’m like you, I’m a big fan of the Gilded Age. I love the 1890s, the 1880s.
I was blown away to realize that, when I was researching the history of spectator sports, in the 1880s and 1890s this sport of pedestrianism was the most popular spectator sport in the United States. Thousands, tens of thousands of people would fill arenas to watch guys walk around a dirt track for days at a time. This was just the most entrancing, fascinating thing that was going on in the Gilded Age. People bet on this. I mean it’s funny right now we have all this controversy about fantasy sports and online betting with fantasy sports. I mean this was the original fantasy sport. People would bet on anything about these guys. Who would be the first to walk 100 miles? Who would be the first to drop out of the race? It was just like the most amazing spectator sport in the United States for, like you said, a really short period of time, but for that period of time in the 1880s and 1890s, it ruled.
Brett McKay: Yeah, like the New York Times would write about it. The National Police Gazette, we’ve talked a bit about that on the show and the website before, they were …
Matthew Algeo: They loved it.
Brett McKay: They love the pedestrianism.
Matthew Algeo: They love it.
Brett McKay: It was like a freak of nature was really what it came down to.
Matthew Algeo: Well, one of the most popular form of pedestrianism was the six-day race. Guys would walk for six days beginning … you couldn’t because back then, of course, on Sundays you couldn’t have any entertainment.
Brett McKay: Yeah, Blue Laws.
Matthew Algeo: Blue Laws, exactly. So the races would begin right after midnight Monday morning and then continue right up until midnight Saturday night, so it was six days long. During this time you would have the newspapers covering the event. They would be posting updates all over the city on billboards, and people would just be following it. They would have extra editions of the newspapers published to show who was in front, who was leading at that time of the day, on Monday morning, on Tuesday afternoon, on Wednesday afternoon. It really was just an amazing cultural phenomenon at the time.
Brett McKay: You said it was a high stakes game, like lots of money was … We’ll talk about how much the purses were for these competitions, it was insane, but the gambling that was involved. What’s funny about pedestrianism is that it got started on a bet. Tell us a little bit about the story of how pedestrianism got its start.
Matthew Algeo: Sure. It was the 1860 presidential election. Of course, Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate in 1860. There were about three other candidates, the Democratic Party was split. There was a guy in Boston, a guy named Edward Payson Weston. He bet a friend that Lincoln would lose the election in 1860. Of course, Lincoln wins the election in 1860. The terms of the bet though were unusual. Weston had to walk from Boston to Washington in time to see the inauguration of Lincoln in March of 1861, so Weston did this walk. It’s the middle of winter. He’s walking from Boston to Washington. It really caught the nation’s attention. He became a very popular figure in the media. The newspapers covered this walk: Would Weston make it to Washington in time to see Lincoln’s inauguration?
Weston was actually about four hours late to the inauguration. He didn’t win the bet. Well, he lost the bet. He didn’t fulfill the wager, but he became such a sensation that people all over the country wanted to see Weston walk. I mean it blows your mind, but people came out just to see him walk through their town when he was doing this walk from Boston to Washington. He figured there’s got to be a way I can monetize this, and so he started taking his act on the road. He walked indoors, in rolling skating rinks. He tried to walk 100 miles in 24 hours, that sort of thing. That’s how he became a very famous pedestrian. He started the whole idea of competitive walking in the United States.
Brett McKay: He was actually a showman, which I thought was really interesting. He wasn’t really much of a … I guess he was an athlete because he was able to do these things, but he brought a bit of showmanship into the sport.
Matthew Algeo: I like to say he was the Ab- … He was the Abraham Lincoln. He was the Muhammad Ali of the 1870s. He understood just instinctively the connection between entertainment and sports. For instance, he would walk 100 miles in 24 hours, which is really an incredible feat. It’s hard to do even today, but, when he did it, he wore long velvet coats, and he always carried a cane. He wore a top hat, and he always wore a necktie or a cravat. He understood that you had to play to the crowd. I mean it was almost a head of its time in the way he understood that you really had to entertain at the same time that you were performing an athletic feat. Like I say, it’s a lot like Muhammad Ali.
Brett McKay: This was during the Gilded Age. This is really when mass media was starting. I guess he was one of those first people who intuitively understood the power of mass media. I think Teddy Roosevelt was the first president that really understood the power of mass media. I guess Weston was the first athlete who understood the power of mass media that catapulted him to fame and riches.
Matthew Algeo: It’s funny. I’m actually working on a book about Roosevelt right now and how he played the media. Weston really played the media so well. I don’t mean that in a negative way. He knew that the picture on the front page of the paper was more dramatic if he was wearing a long, flowing coat and carrying his gold-topped cane. He really understood how entertainment worked, how sports worked, how business worked. He was one of the first athletes to really become interested, invested in his own business. He negotiated his own contracts. This was unheard of at the time. Most athletes were sort of led along by guys who took advantage of them, but Weston wasn’t like that. He was kind of the first generation of athletes who really knew how to capitalize on their fame.
Brett McKay: How did it transition? How did it start from Weston doing this bet basically to walk all the way to Washington, DC, and transform into this thing where there was competitive leagues. There were matches, and money was at stake. How did that transition happen? Here’s the other … why did it happen? What cultural forces were going on at the time that allowed pedestrianism to be the most popular spectator sport in America?
Matthew Algeo: Well really, one of the things was that roller skating became very popular. The roller skate was invented, the kind we know today with the four wheels on the bottom that you can lean and turn, and roller skating rinks popped up all over the country. These were really kind of the first enclosed public spaces, and so there were these venues that were sitting there with nothing to do except rolling skating. Weston, who had just walked from Boston to Washington, realized that all these people wanted to watch him walk. All these roller skating rinks were out there, and so he would go to a roller skating rink, and he’d set up a track. It might be 50 laps to a mile. These were tiny, little roller skating rinks. He would go in there, and he would charge people 10 cents to go watch him walk 100 miles in 24 hours, that sort of thing.
It was this weird convergence of indoor spaces and Weston, people like him, seeing how they could capitalize on these indoor, public spaces for the first time. You also have to remember at the time, we’re talking about after the Civil War, for the first time people have a little extra money in their pockets. You see industrialization coming in. People have a little extra time on their hands, extra time, extra money. These indoor rolling skating rinks, Edward Payson Weston traveling around the country walking 100 miles in 24 hours all over the country and so all these things came together and turned what was this weird bet that he could walk from Boston to Washington into a professional sport.
Brett McKay: I guess at the time baseball was just getting started, so that wasn’t a factor. They weren’t competing with baseball. Prize fighting was around, but that was an underground sport and looked down upon, so walking …
Matthew Algeo: You also …
Brett McKay: Oh, go ahead.
Matthew Algeo: … have to remember baseball sort of had a bad reputation. Boxing, of course, had a bad reputation. Pedestrianism was a wholesome sport. It was walking. What could be more wholesome than walking? So really it was this void that Weston filled when he started going around the country staging these walking exhibitions that said you could bring the family. It was family entertainment, 5 or 10 cents a person, and you could take the family to go see it. You would never take the family to go see John L. Sullivan. Even baseball at the time had a bad reputation. So it really was the first family entertainment, mass entertainment in the United States in 1870s, 1880s, 1890s.
Brett McKay: Besides having these exhibitions where people would pay to watch, it evolved to becoming a sport where there were like belts. They created a belt system like prize fighting. Can you talk a little bit about what I thought was just mind boggling was the amount of money the purses that these walkers, these pedestrians could win? Can you talk a little bit about some of the prizes that were won by some of these athletes?
Matthew Algeo: You’ve got Weston, and he’s going out. He’s walking these exhibitions. Of course, people see how much money he’s making, and competitors arise naturally. The biggest competitor was a guy named Daniel O’Leary. He was an Irish immigrant, and he figured if Weston can walk 100 miles in 24 hours, I can walk 105 miles in 24 hours. Eventually they met in a race, and it was a six-day race as we mentioned earlier. That was as long as you could race. The first big race was in Chicago. This sort of morphed into these six-day races involving all sorts of competitors, from the United States and from Great Britain.
As you mentioned, the payouts on these races were tremendous, because, think about it, it’s a six-day race. You’re at the first Madison Square Garden. They might have 10,000 seats, but it’s continuous. It’s for six days, and so people are coming and going constantly. You could have 500,000 people maybe come and see this race over the course of a week because you might come in and see it for five minutes and leave. Everybody was paying 50 cents or $1.00 a ticket. The winner of the race might receive $25,000, $30,000, $40,000, which today is a million dollars. I mean this is for six days’ work. Whoever won would get a million dollars for six days’ work. This actually stands up to what you see for professional athletes today because a million dollars for a week is $50 million for a year. That’s a pretty good baseball player right there even today.
Brett McKay: Besides the payouts, did some of these athletes get sponsorship deals like modern athletes do?
Matthew Algeo: Yeah. What was interesting, you mentioned the Police Gazette before. You guys know all about the Police Gazette, but they were one of the big sponsor because they covered the races. People who subscribed to the Police Gazette loved pedestrianism. They had a guy that they paid, I think, $2,000 to wear a shirt that just had the Police Gazette logo on it during a race. I mentioned Dan O’Leary earlier. He was the spokesperson for a brand of salt. “When I need to re-salt, I use Tiger Salt.” These guys, they were some of the first athlete spokesmen in the United States. It’s the beginning of this whole sports industrial complex.
Brett McKay: There were also the first on sports cards, like the cigarette cards.
Matthew Algeo: Yeah, yeah, yeah. Cigarette cards really came out … started beginning in the 1870s and 1880s. I’ve got a couple of them. Some of the first athletes featured on these sporting cards were pedestrians. Frank Hart who was actually one of the first famous black athletes in the United States … He was an African American who won a couple major pedestrian events. He’s probably the first African American ever featured on a trading card in the United States. All these guys are forgotten now. Nobody remembers them. That’s probably why nobody’s buying my book. I really think that they were a huge part of American sports history, and I really think they need to be remembered.
Brett McKay: Tell us a little more about Frank Hart, because I thought this was really interesting. This was before, I guess, Plessy v. Ferguson.
Matthew Algeo: Yes.
Brett McKay: People always had this idea that sports has always been segregated, but there was a time right before Plessy v. Ferguson when separate but equal was the law of the land where you had black athletes who were competing and doing really well in competitive sports in America. Can you tell us a little bit more about Frank Hart?
Matthew Algeo: There were even black baseball players in the 1880s and 1890s. You’re right. Plessy v. Ferguson ended everything. It ended any kind of integration that was going on. The beauty of pedestrianism was that anybody who could walk could do it, and almost everybody can walk. Black people can walk. Chinese people can walk. White people can walk. It was amazing the variety of people you had in pedestrian events because anybody who could walk could take part. It didn’t matter what your race was, what your color was.
People tend to forget this that in the Gilded Age, you had this weird period between Reconstruction and Plessy v. Ferguson, as you mentioned, where there was a wide-open field, really. I make the argument in the book that things were a lot better for African American athletes between Reconstruction and Plessy versus Ferguson than they were between Plessy and Jackie Robinson. I mean black people could take part in sporting events with white people. Frank Hart was one of those people, an African American, who took part in these events, and he won several six-day races. His picture was on the front page of the New York newspapers. It was amazing for an African American at that time to do what he did. It’s a shame that it really ended with Plessy versus Ferguson.
Brett McKay: He won a lot of money, too.
Matthew Algeo: These guys won so much money. You really don’t appreciate but winning $12,000, $15,000 in 1889 was like winning half a million dollars today. Really for six days work, you could take half a million dollars home. If these guys won two races a year, they won a million dollars a year. I mean it was amazing.
Brett McKay: I guess something we really haven’t talked about is how these races actually went down. A lot of them were six-day races, but they weren’t walking continuously for six days. How did the whole walking match occur, and what were some of the rules that governed these events?
Matthew Algeo: For a walking match, strictly, one foot had to be on the ground at all times, heel, toe, heel, toe, just like today. In the Olympics you have 10, 50 kilometer walking matches. You see the way people walk, that funny, swiveling in their hips kind of walk. That’s how people walked. The match would begin, as a I mentioned earlier, right after midnight on Monday morning. Typically it would continue right up until midnight on Saturday night. There would be tents erected in the middle of the track. There’d be a dirt track on the floor. It’d be maybe an eighth or a seventh of a mile around. It’d be inside an arena. Almost always these were indoor events. Whoever walked the most miles over those six day would be the winner. You could stop whenever you wanted. You could go rest in your tent. Most people ate while they walked. They might eat some greasy eel broth or something like that. It wasn’t really the kind of nutrition that people take today. Whoever walked the most miles in six days was the winner. That was the most common race, the six-day race.
Brett McKay: I thought it was really interesting how they kept themselves … some of the things they did. You mentioned the greasy eel broth, but I guess champagne was a really popular drink to keep you going.
Matthew Algeo: They thought alcohol was a stimulant, and so a lot of guys would drink a lot of alcohol and then sometimes literally fall off the track. It was just amazing. It took them a while to figure out that you probably shouldn’t be drinking during the race. The guys who took it most seriously, really, they did training. I tend to make fun of them or whatever, but the guys who were very serious about it, they did a lot of training. They did a lot of running, a lot of jogging, that sort of thing. I mean they were athletes on a par with the athletes of today.
Brett McKay: Speaking of how pedestrianism really laid the foundation of modern sport in America, you talked about how pedestrianism had America’s first doping scandal. I thought this was really funny, too.
Matthew Algeo: Yeah. Edward Payson Weston, who we had mentioned earlier, he took part in a race in the UK. It was discovered that he was chewing coca leaves. This was, of course, a stimulant, but at the time there were no rules. I mean this was one of the problems with pedestrianism and one of the reasons it died is that there was no governing body of pedestrianism. There was no commissioner of pedestrianism. There was nobody to really take control of the sport, and so when Weston was found to be chewing these coca leaves, there was nobody to enforce any rule to say it was wrong. There’s nobody to tell him that he should be expelled from the sport, that sort of thing. So it really went by that Weston got away with this. He later insisted that it gave him no competitive advantage. Of course, that’s what everybody says when they chew coca leaves, I guess.
Brett McKay: When they get caught, right?
Matthew Algeo: Yeah.
Brett McKay: You mentioned there was a lack of an organizing body that led to the decline, but what other factors led to the decline of pedestrianism? Why was it forgotten from American history?
Matthew Algeo: Wow. Well, baseball really … I mentioned that pedestrianism had no commissioner. Well, in 1876, the owners of baseball teams organized the National League and baseball really became the American pastime within 10, 20 years of that. They had a commissioner. They could oversee the sport. They could wipe out gambling. They could maintain the integrity of the sport. Pedestrianism had nothing like that. Also the invention of the bicycle. Remember the old time 19th century bicycles was that kind with the big, huge front wheel …
Brett McKay: Yeah, that hipsters drive around in.
Matthew Algeo: .. and that tiny back …? Exactly. I saw that on Gawker recently. Anyway, yes, the hipsters who drive these big bicycles around, but those are very hard to race. They weren’t very nimble. The invention of the safety bicycle in the 1880s, that’s the bicycle we drive today, with the two same-sized wheels and the drive chain. Well, that was much more interesting to watch race for six days than people walking around a track. So the combination of baseball and the bicycle really eliminated pedestrianism from the sporting scene in the United States. People just stopped watching it. Moved on to other sports, moved onto more interesting things. As for why they’re forgotten, I don’t know. I mean why would you remember people who walked? I don’t know.
Brett McKay: Excuse me, I thought it was interesting, too, towards the end of its heyday, like moral crusaders started going after pedestrianism much in the same way they went after prize fighting or bull fighting or cock fighting.
Matthew Algeo: One of the most entertaining things about watching a six-day race was going into watch day number five or six because the competitors would be so bedraggled. They would be so wore out they’d almost be dead on their feet. That was the exciting thing was to go watch these people after five or six days of continuously walking, what they would look like, how they would behave. So there were morality crusaders, and they were aligned with the temperance movement who came in and said this making fun of these people. It’s like exhibitionism. It’s immoral to watch these people after five or six days. So the weight of this crusade came down on pedestrianism, and it really had a hard time recovering from that.
Brett McKay: We forgot about pedestrianism, but it did lay the groundwork for modern sports as far as its connection to mass media, its connection to gambling, the connection to athletic sponsorships. I’m curious, I think you mentioned the Olympic walking. Is that a remnant of pedestrianism?
Matthew Algeo: It is. Walking is one of the very few sports that has been in the Olympics continuously since the very first Olympics in, what was it, 1896, I forget. I don’t think it’s a stretch to say, pedestrianism really you see it more in even major league baseball or the NFL where the idea of capitalizing on an athletic event. Pedestrianism was one of the first sports to figure out a way to monetize itself. There were sponsorships. There were championships. There all sorts of different ways to make money. That’s all what sports is about today is making money. Pedestrianism was the first sport, I really think … because the other sports were under the radar, boxing and baseball. They were either for gentlemen or for ruffians, but pedestrianism was the first sport that was for the general populous, and they figured out a way to make money.
Brett McKay: I’m curious writing this book, did you start walking more? Because I’m going to try doing one of those feats. Did you start walking more? Because after reading it, I was like, “I’m going to start walking more.”
Matthew Algeo: I encourage you to attend a 24-hour race. I actually did a 24-hour race. People came up to me and said, “Have you ever done this?” “No, no, no, no, no.” Actually last year in October I did a 24-hour race in New Jersey, and I walked it, just walk your 24 hours, see how far you go. I did 51 miles, so I am proud to say that, yes, after all that I was inspired to attempt a 24-hour race.
Brett McKay: There you go. I’m going to have to give that a try. I’m going to do it.
Matthew Algeo: But that’s half, that’s half of what Weston did, or O’Leary did, or Frank Hart did. They would walk 100 miles in a day.
Brett McKay: That’s crazy.
Matthew Algeo: Your basic walking speed is about 4 miles an hour so just go walk but not stop for 24 hours, and you’re not at 100 miles.
Brett McKay: All right. Well, I’m going to give it a try. I’m going to challenge everyone out there who’s listening to go try it this, too. We get some records on here, so we can beat Weston.
Matthew Algeo: It’s really cool. The races are a lot of fun. It’s really cool. The ultramarathons are not for regular people, but 24-hour races, those kinds of races, a regular person can do it because there’s no ‘did not finish.’
Brett McKay: Yeah.
Matthew Algeo: Everybody finishes, so it’s really a lot of fun.
Brett McKay: Very good. Well, Matthew Algeo, thank you so much for your time. This has been an absolute pleasure.
Matthew Algeo: Oh, Brett, I really enjoyed it. Thank you for inviting me.
Hamilton College Cemetery
The Board of Trustees established the Cemetery in August of 1820. Prior to then, the Old Burying Ground on Kirkland Avenue was where many Hamilton-connected people were buried. In 1855, the Cemetery was enlarged when Professor Edward North donated half an acre of land.
Professors, presidents, alumni, their spouses and children lie buried on the eastern slope of College Hill amidst the trees, red shale paths, and shrubs adjacent to Bristol Center and Morris House.
Here are some of the prominent people interred there.
Azel Backus served as Hamilton’s first president from 1812–1816 he died of typhus on December 16, 1816, after attending to a student with the disease. Backus was buried in the Old Burying Ground on Kirkland Avenue.
Professor Seth Norton succeeded Backus as acting president before dying two years later. In 1820, their bodies were exhumed and reburied in the newly established College Cemetery.
When Samuel Kirkland died in 1808, he was buried behind his mansion on Harding Road. Oneida Chief Schenando, upon his death in 1816, was buried beside Kirkland, as was his wish. In 1856, the bodies of Kirkland and Schenando, as well as Kirkland’s daughter, Eliza, who died in 1819, were disinterred and transferred to their present sites in the College Cemetery. Famous Hamilton graduate Gerrit Smith was present at that ceremony. A new monument for Schenando was dedicated in 1999.
Many other notable administrators
and faculty members are buried in the cemetery, including Professor of Classics Edward North, Class of 1841 and Hamilton’s longest-serving faculty member at 58 years, and President Melancthon Woolsey Stryker, Class of 1872 and Hamilton’s longest-serving president between 1892 and 1917.
Elihu Root, Class of 1864, had an illustrious career as a lawyer, US Senator, diplomat, Secretary of State, and Secretary of War. In 1912, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Root was also a long-time Hamilton trustee, board president, and generous graduate whose father and grandfather had taught math and science at Hamilton. Originally they came from nearby Vernon.
Root owned much of the land in the College area, and his former summer home
on the south side of College Hill Road now houses administrative offices. This house is listed on the National and State Registers of Historic Places.
Other Hamilton deans and presidents buried there are Dean Frank Ristine (1884–1958), Dean Winton Tolles (1906–1980), Dean Arthur Percy Saunders (1869–1953), President Frederick Carlos Ferry (1868–1956), President Henry Davis (1771–1852), President Robert McEwen (1906–1967), President Simeon North (1802–1884), and Trustee Chair Clark Hayes Minor (1875–1967).
Numerous members of the Root family are interred at the cemetery along with the prominent Elihu Root. Among them include his brothers Oren Root Jr. (1838–1907) and Edward Walstein Root (1841–1870), and his father Oren Root (1803–1885). Including spouses and children, some 21 members of the Root family are buried in the College Cemetery.
Professors from more recent years buried here include Edgar B. Graves (1898–1983), David Maldwyn Ellis (1914–1982), John S. Gambs (1889–1986), Lawrence K. Yourtee (1917–1997), David R. Millar (1932–1993), G. Harvey Cameron (1902–1977), John Mattingly (1902–1994), Thomas McNaughton Johnston (1904–1986), Franklin Hunt (1907–1993), and Sidney Wertimer (1920–2005).
Alexander Woollcott, Class of 1909, became a literary and drama critic and writer in New York City in the 1920s and 1930s. Woollcott founded the Charlatans theater group, which still performs today. He also joined Dorothy Parker and other literary figures at the Algonquin Round Table, a hotel meeting place in the city. He wrote for the New York Times and the New Yorker as a commentator and critic and also was on the radio in the 1930s.
Other notables are: Samuel Eells (1810–1842), an early student of the College and founder of Alpha Delta Phi fraternity Greg Batt, legendary hockey coach (1925–1985) artists William C. Palmer (1906–1987) and James Penney (1910–1982) Wallace B. Johnson (1892–1967), College Secretary G.H.F. Peters (1813–1890), Director of the Litchfield Observatory David Ellis, historian (1914–1999) Walter Pilkington, College Librarian 1952–1976 (1910–1983) and Charles Avery, chemistry profess or and early pioneer in daguerreotypes (1795–1883).
Greek columns from the former Truax Hall adorn a section of the cemetery. Truax was razed to make way for the Burke Library in 1970. The columns survive on an inscribed stone base in the cemetery.
History of tin foil
It crinkles, hurts to chew on and can even be made into a hat to ward off alien mind probes.
Tin foil may not be the most exciting kitchen accessory, but junior Kylie Woodford said it plays an important role in the kitchen at Mancino’s Grinders and Pizza. Woodford, a Mancino’s employee, said the restaurant uses tin foil on a regular basis to wrap up leftovers.
“It’s very versatile and very nice to use and also inexpensive,” she said. “I’m a tin foil fan.”
Actually, the “tin foil” used in homes and restaurants is not tin at all. Tin foil was originally used for industrial purposes such as lining cigarette packages, said Pat Schweitzer, an Alcoa spokesperson. However, Reynolds Wrap foil has been made of aluminum since 1926.
“‘Tin foil’ is just carried over from days when it was used for other more industrial uses,” Schweitzer said, adding that all household foil is now aluminum. Today Reynolds Wrap is made of 99 percent alloy aluminum iron and silicon add strength and puncture resistance in the remaining one percent. Reynolds Wrap is now owned by Alcoa, which purchased the popular brand name six years ago.
Schweitzer said aluminum foil went on the market as a household product in the 1940s, when a Reynolds Wrap sales representative used an extra roll of foil from his car to save his family’s Thanksgiving Dinner. His wife could not find a pan for the turkey and the representative doubted there would be any pans left in the store on Thanksgiving Day, Schweitzer said.
“He wrapped the turkey up in the foil and it turned out perfectly,” she said.
The European Aluminum Foil Association claims aluminum foil is an ideal product for protecting food because it is malleable it does not absorb grease, oil or water it does not react with most common compounds and it is sterile, tasteless and odor-free.
Aluminum foil is more effective than plastic wrap when freezing food because of its ability to hold moisture. Woodford finds aluminum foil works especially well in wrapping Mancino’s Grinders, or submarine sandwiches, according to Alcoa’s corporate Web site.
“It seems to work best with Grinders,” she said. “It doesn’t make them soggy or anything.”
Aluminum foil’s shiny and dull side comes from rolling two sheets of aluminum together, Schweitzer said. The bright side gets its shine from coming into contact with the company’s heavy rollers during manufacturing. When it comes to cooking, freezing and storing food with the standard foil, Schweitzer said there is no significant difference between the two sides. However, she does suggest facing the dull (and non-stick) side inward if using Reynolds Wrap Release Non-Stick Foil.
Both Reynolds Wrap Aluminum and Release Non-Stick Foil are kosher and recyclable, according to Alcoa’s Web site.
Woodford also uses aluminum foil often at home, especially when baking.
“I always line my pan with tin foil,” she said. “It’s easy to clean up things don’t stick to it at all. Then I don’t have to wash the dishes like crazy.”
Schweitzer said though Reynolds Wrap’s most common use is for food preparation and storage, it comes in handy in many other circumstances as well.
She recommends using aluminum foil on the grill and in the oven to prevent food, such as baked potatoes, from charring and drying out. Aluminum foil also works well as a wrap for storing paintbrushes between uses and as a liner between garden rows to thwart weeds, Schweitzer said.
Woodford finds aluminum foil also improves the reception on her television.
“I have some tin foil on my TV antennas,” she said. “It seems to work pretty well.”
The Spectator Project is an interactive hypermedia environment for the study of The Tatler (1709-1711), The Spectator (1711-14), and the eighteenth-century periodical in general. The most innovative feature of the project developed out of the object of study itself. The format, style, and even the content of The Tatler and the Spectator were immediately and closely imitated in hundreds of periodicals in Europe and the Americas. The Spectator Project will allow users to compare imitated and imitating formats and passages of text through the means of hyperlinks. A footnote will appear, for example, in the text of Marivaux's Le Spectateur français or Eliza Haywood's The Female Spectator, and the user will click on it to bring up the passage in the Spectator that it derives from. While there are editions of eighteenth-century periodicals on-line and in CD-ROM format, none have linked multiple periodicals together for the purpose of studying their complex interrelation. While many scholarly web projects simply make their material more widely available--in itself, a laudable goal--this feature makes our project an interpretive editorial apparatus, and one which is based on the special capabilities of the digital environment.
The limits imposed on the study of periodicals through reprint editions and even through primary documents are extensive. Reprint editions, including the definitive edition of The Spectator (ed., D.F. Bond, 5 volumes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965)), are generally hardcover, multi-volume series, and are often out-of-print, so they are rarely owned by scholars. (Versions of The Tatler and The Spectator currently in print are selected editions, and include less than one-fifth of the entire series.) Consequently, simply making The Spectator accessible in its entirety will provide a useful resource.
The obstacles to scholarly study of the eighteenth-century periodical in book form, however, extend far beyond their availability. Book editions of periodicals are limited in precisely those ways that inhibit the most innovative aspects of the scholarly work that is currently being done on them. Since very few are facsimile editions, they do not reproduce the periodicals' format or typography, and they exclude elements of the originals (such as advertisements) regarded as extra-textual. Most importantly, the kind of editorial apparatus that is possible in a book cannot demonstrate the level of imitation and appropriation that takes place between the periodicals of Addison and Steele and those periodicals that follow. Scholars studying original documents or microfilms of eighteenth-century periodicals (and particularly those working in languages other than English) may not be aware, for example, that a given passage imitates and alters a passage from the Spectator, and, of course, will not have the guidance of an editorial apparatus. This last point is particularly important, as the reprinting of periodical essays in modern editions lags far behind scholarly interest in the periodical. Even in scholarly editions, footnotes are limited in their capacity to document the passages imitating Addison and Steele beyond reproducing a few lines of the Tatler or the Spectator.
While the Spectator Project will assuage all of these difficulties, it will also allow the user to manipulate the texts. Users can conduct complex structured searches of this large corpus and to access critical materials that elucidate both the periodicals and the contexts of their production and reception. Researchers working on topics ranging from the history of literary criticism to the consumption of snuff and caffeine in the Augustan era can search hundreds of issues of The Spectator in a matter of seconds, producing a ranked survey of every mention of their topic of study. Soon, users will be able to consult maps of Queen Anne's London (with special sections on both the London book trade and the haunts of Addison and Steele's persona, "Mr. Spectator," glossaries of terms from eighteenth-century dictionaries, formats of both the original periodicals and bound volumes through the nineteenth century, and other ancillary materials.
The Swiss Spectator focuses on the history and culture of Switzerland, a remarkable country with a robust business environment, a relatively well-functioning (direct) democracy and respect for the rule of law.
It features an overview of the country’s museums and exhibitions, cultural events, monuments, rich cultural heritage, commemorations and magnificent nature. The relationship between Switzerland and the European Union is also covered.
The country’s surrounding regions have always played a crucial role in Swiss history and culture: Northern Italy (Valley of Aoste, Lombardy and Vinschgau (Venosta), Eastern France (Franche-Comté, Alsace, Haute-Savoie and Savoie), Southern Germany (Lake Constance region) and Austria (Vorarlberg).
Four periods and subjects are covered: the Roman Empire and the process of romanisation, the Middle Ages (from the Kingdoms of Burgundy to the sixteenth century), the long nineteenth century (1815-1918), and Switzerland’s multicultural, multilinguistic and cosmopolitan aspects.
VR-Climbing the Matterhorn
The project (Red Bull the Edge: A Matterhorn VR experience) is the result of an innovative and long-term collaboration between Swiss and international pioneers. They developed the idea of the Geneva film producers Stefan Lauper and Consuelo Frauenfelder. Thanks to a completely new 3D technology, an agency transformed the drone footage into an interactive and &hellip Read more » “VR-Climbing the Matterhorn”
The Cardinal and Absinthe
The famous Brasserie du Cardinal de Fribourg is located at the foot of Neuchâtel Castle between the city’s old mills and the bed of the Seyon. The interior of the current restaurant has retained most of its Art Nouveau decor from 1905. It is typical of the Belle Époque: a unique imaginary pattern of coloured &hellip Read more » “The Cardinal and Absinthe”
The Abbey of St. Maurice
The Abbey of St. Maurice (canton of Valais), the oldest monastery in the West, an uninterrupted functioning abbey and laus perennis (perpetual hymn), was founded in 515 by Sigismund (? – 524), king of the Burgundian kingdom (443-534). The martyrdom of Saint Maurice and his Christian companions of the Roman Theban legion lies at the &hellip Read more » “The Abbey of St. Maurice”
Multicultural and Cosmopolitan Switzerland
The origin of the French, German, Italian and Romansh languages and cultures will be addressed. The Roman Empire and the Middle Ages are the crucial periods. The contributions also pay attention to the multicultural, multilingual and cosmopolitan society.
Consortages de bisses
The consortages de bisses emerged in Valais during the Middle Ages around the management of common resources such as water, mountain pastures or forests. The current and future challenges related to natural resources have revived interest in this collective governance, in which the users manage the common goods. The exhibition “CONSORTAGES: Together, what future for &hellip Read more » “Consortages de bisses”
Constitution and Democracy
The Great Constitution of 1848
The Constitution of 1848 marked the beginning of a rapid development of the new Swiss Confederation in almost all areas. 1815-1848 The confederation of sovereign cantons in 1815 became a federal state of three political layers: the federal level, the cantons and the municipalities. The principle of sovereign cantons remained unchanged with one important difference: &hellip Read more » “The Great Constitution of 1848”
The Alabama, Putin, Biden and Geneva
Joe Biden (1942), President of the United States, and Vladimir Putin (1952), President of Russia, will meet in Geneva on 16 June 2021. The venue for the meeting is La Grange Park. The city has a long reputation for dispute resolution and meetings between leaders of the great powers. One of the first cases was &hellip Read more » “The Alabama, Putin, Biden and Geneva”
Nature and Tourism
The Hagneck canal
The rivers and lakes in the Three-Lakes area (das Drei-Seen-Land, le Pays des Trois-Lacs) were ingeniously adjusted in the years 1868-1891 and 1962-1971 in the Juragewässerkorrektion/ la correction des eaux du Jura. It was and is a unique pioneering project for the development of the region. Between 1868 and 1891, the water level of the &hellip Read more » “The Hagneck canal”