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William Ludwig Ullmann

William Ludwig Ullmann

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William Ludwig Ullmann was born in Springfield, Missouri, on 14th August, 1908. He graduated from Harvard Business School with an MBA in 1935. Ullmann then took a job with the National Recovery Administration. There he met Nathan Silvermaster and became associated with members of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) who were officials in the New Deal. This included Harold Ware, Alger Hiss, Nathaniel Weyl, Laurence Duggan, Harry Dexter White, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Julian Wadleigh, Henry H. Collins, Lee Pressman and Victor Perlo.

This group was connected to Joszef Peter, the "head of the underground section of the American Communist Party." It was claimed that Peter's design for the group of government agencies, to "influence policy at several levels" as their careers progressed". Weyl later recalled that every member of the Ware Group was also a member of the CPUSA: "No outsider or fellow traveller was ever admitted... I found the secrecy uncomfortable and disquieting." (1) Ullmann was recruited as a Soviet spy, his codename was Polo. (2)

In 1937 Ullmann was transferred to the Resettlement Administration. The following year he bought a house with Nathan Silvermaster and his wife, Helen Silvermaster. In 1939 Ulmann went to work for Harry Dexter White in the Department of the Treasury. His immediate supervisor in his new post was Frank Coe. Both White and Coe were Soviet agents. By 1941 Ullmann became White's Administrative Assistant.

At first, Jacob Golos was the main contact of the Silvermaster group but his failing health meant that he used Elizabeth Bentley to collect information from the house. Helen was highly suspicious of Bentley and she told Golos that she was convinced that she was an undercover agent for the FBI. Golos told her that she was being ridiculous and that she had no choice but to work with her. The Silvermasters reluctantly accepted Bentley as their new contact.

Kathryn S. Olmsted, the author of Red Spy Queen (2002), points out: "Every two weeks, Elizabeth would travel to Washington to pick up documents from the Silvermasters, collect their Party dues, and deliver Communist literature. Soon the flow of documents grew so large that Ullmann, an amateur photographer, set up a darkroom in their basement. Elizabeth usually collected at least two or three rolls of microfilmed secret documents, and one time received as many as forty. She would stuff all the film and documents into a knitting bag or other innocent feminine accessory, then take it back to New York on the train." (3) Moscow complained that around half of the photographed documents received in the summer of 1944 were unreadable and suggested that Ullmann received more training. However, Pavel Fitin, who was responsible for analyzing the material, described it as very important data.

Bentley became aware that Ullmann was having an affair with his host's wife." (4) When Iskhak Akhmerov also discovered what was happening he cabled Moscow: "Surely these unhealthy relations between them cannot help but influence their behavior and work with us negatively." (5) Akhmerov also reported that other members of the group had become aware of this ménage à trois and that it was undermining his relationship with the rest of the group. However, Ullmann continued to provide important information.

According to Elizabeth Bentley Ullmann had given her the "approximate schedule date of D-Day". (6) However, this has been questioned by the historian, Allen Weinstein, who has seen evidence in the Soviet archives that it was Donald Niven Wheeler who provided the information. (7) Ullmann also attended United Nations Charter meeting at San Francisco and to the Bretton Woods Conference as Harry Dexter White's assistant.

On 30th July 1948, Elizabeth Bentley appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee. Over the next two days she gave the names of several Soviet spies including William Ludwig Ullmann, Donald Niven Wheeler, William Remington, Mary Price, Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White, Nathan Silvermaster, Duncan Chaplin Lee, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Julian Wadleigh, Harold Glasser, Henry Hill Collins, Frank Coe, Charles Kramer and Lauchlin Currie. Ullmann, Perlo, Kramer, Silverman and Silvermaster took the Fifth Amendment and refused to answer most of the HUAC's questions. (8)

Ullmann was never prosecuted and according to Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) that Nathan Silvermaster and "his faithful housemate, William Ludwig Ullmann, had become by 1951 prosperous home builders on the New Jersey shore." (9)

William Ludwig Ullmann died on 3rd February, 1993.

Nathan Silvermaster's wife, Helen, helped him spy. Unlike many of the Russian emigres who spied for Elizabeth, she was neither Jewish nor poor. Her father had actually been a baron in the old country, but he was called the "Red Baron" for his support of the Bolsheviks....

To complicate the Silvermaster menage, a sallow man in his mid-thirties, "Lud" Ullmann, lived with the couple. When Elizabeth met him, Lud worked at the Treasury Department. Later, with the help of a fellow spy, he would win a coveted job at the Pentagon. At first, Elizabeth was not clear about the relationship among the three members of the Silvermaster household. It soon became evident, however, that Ullmann was having an affair with his host's wife.

Elizabeth's job as Golos's assistant was to win the emigre couple's trust, but that was not as easy as it seemed. At their first meeting, Helen Silvermaster ushered her into their tasteful, spacious living room and chatted pleasantly for an hour. Yet Elizabeth sensed that the Russian woman was suspicious of her. Later, Helen protested to Golos that Elizabeth must be an undercover agent for the FBI. Angry with Elizabeth for "creating such an impression of distrust" and with Helen for her "idiocy," Golos told the Silvermasters that they had no choice. Helen and her husband reluctantly accepted Elizabeth as their new contact.

Every two weeks, Elizabeth would travel to Washington to pick up documents from the Silvermasters, collect their Party dues, and deliver Communist literature. Soon the flow of documents grew so large that Ullman, an amateur photographer, set up a darkroom in their basement. She would stuff all the film and documents into a knitting bag or other innocent feminine accessory, then take it back to New York on the train.

The knitting bag soon bulged with critical documents from the U.S. government. Shortly after the Nazi invasion of Russia, Silvermaster stole secret estimates of German military strength. Later, when the United States extended its policy of Lend-Lease to the USSR, he gave Elizabeth secret memos about the program.

Silvermaster also passed along White House gossip, such as the rumors of frosty relations between the president and his secretary of state, Cordell Hull, and the arguments within the cabinet over financial aid to the Soviets.

(1) Nathaniel Weyl, interview with US News & World Report (9th January, 1953)

(2) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 158

(3) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 46

(4) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) pages 152-153

(5) Venona File 35112 page 108

(6) Elizabeth Bentley, statement to the FBI (30th November, 1945)

(7) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 258

(8) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 141

(9) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 170

Ludwig Ullmann worked in Munich , Kaiserslautern , Nuremberg and Speyer . His twin brother Heinrich Ullmann (born April 15, 1872 † June 12, 1953) was also an architect. Ludwig Ullmann was the son-in-law of the Palatine Forestry Council, Karl Albrecht von Ritter. Important buildings by Ullmann are the Luitpold Tower in the Palatinate Forest , built in 1908–1909 , the Melanchthon High School in Nuremberg , built in 1909–1910 , the Scholastika House in Munich , built in 1915, and the Royal Botanical Institute in Munich, built in 1912–1914.

In 1902 Ullmann was transferred to the Royal Land Building Office in Nuremberg as a building authority assessor . Immediately he was entrusted with important projects of the Bavarian state as chief architect, and in 1909 he was transferred to Munich. Perhaps his first large building in Munich is the neo-baroque clinic in Munich Harlaching . The groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 1, 1911, and the building was occupied on December 1, 1913. As the royal building officer of the Supreme Building Authority , Ullmann was also responsible for the new Botanical Institute and the Botanical Garden in Munich-Nymphenburg , which were built between 1910 and 1913 . With a total area of ​​around 4,500 m², for which Ullmann implemented a transparent and filigree iron-wood-glass architecture, these greenhouses are among the last large plant showhouses that have been built across Europe since the beginning of the 19th century. Together with garden engineer Peter Holfelder (1878–1936 previously teacher at the horticultural school in Weihenstephan ), Ullmann was also responsible for the concept of the garden. This fits into the structural context of the Nymphenburg Palace and Park, following the orangery . The garden was laid out according to both scientific and artistic criteria and is on the list of architectural monuments in Nymphenburg .

The court gardener Leonhard Dillis (born December 31, 1871) was responsible for setting up the greenhouses. The gardening custodian Walter Kupper (1874–1953) was responsible for the planting . As can be seen on the plan from 1914, the garden consists of a central, strictly formal area, an alpinum with a pond in front and a large arboretum . The complex is neoclassical and is based on the architecture of early classicism of the late 18th century. The main building of the Botanical Institute, built by Ullmann together with Ludwig von Stempel , can also be assigned to this phase , whereby neo-baroque features are also unmistakable, such as eight large vases on the middle part of the roof in front and below, which were made of artificial stone and during a roof renovation 1956 were removed. Ullmann's and Holfelder's style for the Munich garden is also characterized by the hard geometric shapes of the surfaces and their borders , the use of straight pergolas , and the lowering of the parterre of the so-called Schmuckhof, in which onion plants, annuals and perennials are shown from spring to autumn . A small garden pavilion in the center of the garden, initially designed as a refreshment room during the summer months, served as a visitor café from around 1915, and as a full restoration from 1936.

The building decorations on the garden side of the institute are also made of artificial stone, which leads to different weathering resistance if there are differences in the quality of the cement mass . The portal figures on the two round towers on the south side are therefore less resistant to the acid rain .


In the decades after 1945, Philipp Brothers grew to become the largest and most important metal trading company in the world. By the late 1970s, the secretive American company had become an international giant, in the words of Business Weekly a &ldquo$9 billion supertrader,&rdquo dealing in over one hundred and fifty different industrial raw materials with representatives in virtually every country in the world possessing metals or minerals of commercial quality. At the helm of the company for most of this period was a German Jewish émigré, Ludwig Jesselson (born August 29, 1910 in Neckarbischofsheim, Germany died April 3, 1993 in Jerusalem, Israel), who had come to New York in 1937 to work for Philipp Brothers. Jesselson led the company from a sizable private company to an international giant, in the process contributing to changing the markets for international commodities. He was also heavily involved in philanthropy in the United States and in Israel.


Lion Ullmann was the son of the businessman Baruch Ullmann and Judith Isaac, nee Jonas. He married Nanette-Nannche Süßel (born 1808 in Abersheim, died after 1868 in Frankfurt am Main ), the orphan of the trader Leopold Süßel and the adopted daughter of the Mainz rabbi Löb Ellinger.

Lion Ullmann attended the Talmudic schools in Bingen and from 1821 in Darmstadt . In addition, he acquired knowledge of German, French and Latin. In 1823 he became vicar to Rabbi Callmann Mengeburg in Darmstadt. In 1829 he was ordained a rabbi ( Morenu ) by Callmann Mengeburg and the rabbis Leo Ellinger ( Mainz ) and Seckel Löb Wormser ( Michelstadt ) . From December 1829 to 1833 he studied at the University of Bonn with Georg Wilhelm Freytag "Jewish theology", Arabic and oriental studies . He belonged to the circle of friends around Abraham Geiger and Samson Raphael Hirsch . Then he was tutor to the businessman Zons in Koblenz . He received his doctorate in May 1835 from the University of Giessen .

In March 1836 Lion Ullmann was elected Chief Rabbi of the Krefeld Consistory. He was the first academically trained rabbi in Krefeld. Ullmann wrote the first synagogue order for the Krefeld Consistory in 1836 (“Synagogue, marriage and burial order” of May 20, 1836). Although this was introduced in all synagogues in the administrative districts of Düsseldorf, Cologne and Aachen, it was not implemented everywhere, not even in his own community, which led to considerable annoyance. In 1840 he founded a Jewish elementary school in Krefeld.

In the same year he published a translation of the Koran , which is reprinted to this day. In response to his petition written in 1843, the Rhenish assembly of estates suspended the Napoleonic "Décret infâme" .

Lion Ullmann died of a "chest cramp" after suffering for many years. His tombstone is in the Heideckstrasse cemetery in Krefeld.

William Ludwig Ullmann - History

Ludwig innovation exists as forerunners to modern drum manufacturing. Driven by passion for the drum industry, brothers William F. and Theobald Ludwig would bring to life concepts and ideas of snares, drums, hardware, and accessories. It leads to an extraordinary impact, reaching a pinnacle in the 1960&rsquos. The success of it all was very simple. just drummers making products for drummers. It can easily be argued that Ludwig either directly, or indirectly helped shape both music and modern drum manufacturing for decades to come.

It starts in Chicago, IL, year 1909. An idea for the first American made floor foot pedal came to production through brothers William F. and Theobald Ludwig. This new product was well received by the industry, resulting in high regard for the newly established brand, Ludwig & Ludwig. Soon thereafter, Ludwig & Ludwig would design, distribute, and manufacture all things drums and percussion: snares, bass drums, drum heads, hardware, and into the evolved trap kit. After the death of Theobald in 1918, William F. was determined to carry on the business that he'd established. William F. would do everything possible to remain a prominent figure in the drum and percussion industry. Ludwig & Ludwig would thrive throughout the 1920&rsquos offering fresh innovative drum products that would later become the foundation to the legacy established today.

Socioeconomic issues in the first half of the 20th century presented numerous difficulties for the Ludwig brand to remain as a profitable business. This would result in the selling of the company to C.G Conn in 1929. Ludwig Drums was now part of a merger with Leedy Drums under C.G Conn, known as Leedy and Ludwig. William F. would work for C.G Conn up until 1936. Unable to reconcile his feeling about drum production and management, William F. would leave C.G Conn and start the business all over again. The WFL Drum Co. would come to rise, as C.G CONN owned the &ldquoLudwig&rdquo name. It was under the WFL era where many more concepts to modern drum manufacturing were birthed. By 1960, these concepts, amongst others, would reach a pinnacle under the re-acquired, Ludwig Drum Co.

The 1960&rsquos became the decade of the Ludwig manufacturing boom. Newly branded and established as the Ludwig Drum Co, no longer WFL, a concept formulated early on would shape the sound of music to come. the concept of the 3-ply shell. It was the design of 3ply classic shells, wrapped in stunning décor, which left a lasting impression on drummers for years to come. The 3-ply shells were available in several variants and outfits to satisfy amateur and pro drummers alike. Shells were crafted from a mold consisting of 3 individual plies of varying woods, with a single solid reinforcement ring on each end of the drum shell.

The design and tone of Classic Shells would be showcased on the Ed Sullivan show in 1964 by The Beatles drummer Ringo Starr, changing Ludwig drums forever. It was a Ludwig classic shell Downbeat model in Black Oyster Pearl finish, played by Ringo Starr, supporting and moving the string arrangement and vocal melodies of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, and George Harrison. William F. Ludwig Jr., president of the company, would often joke that the Beatles appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show was &ldquothe show that launched one thousand orders.&rdquo

For the next few years, Ludwig Drum Co. struggled to keep up with the demand for their products. For three years the company only closed on 3 holidays: Christmas, Thanksgiving and New Year's. The company&rsquos sales more than doubled in two years from 6.1 million to 13.1 million dollars. Ludwig drums were in such high in demand that proper lumber for classic shell molds were becoming scarce. Ludwig was forced to buy different types of wood to mold shells resulting in a variance in shell makeup for some time. From this point forward, the Ludwig name will became synonymous with drummers. In every studio and on every stage, there was a Ludwig drum.

Alexander de Erény Ullmann

Alexander de Erény Ullmann (Hungarian: Erényi Ullmann Sándor, 18 February 1850, in Budapest – 1897, in Budapest), was a Jewish Hungarian deputy and political economist. He was a son of Karl Ullmann (1809 – 1880), founder of the first Hungarian insurance company, and vice-president of the Bank of Commerce at Pest.

Ullmann was educated in Budapest and Vienna (LL.D. 1872), and was admitted to the bar in 1873. On the death of his father the family was elevated to the Hungarian nobility. From 1884 to 1892 Ullmann represented the electoral district of Also-Arpas in the Hungarian Parliament.

In addition to numerous juridical and economic essays in the Pester Lloyd, Ellenör, and Neuzeit, Ullmann wrote the following works: A Részvényes Kereseti Jogáról (Budapest, 1877), on the right of stockholders to institute legal proceedings A Kényszeregyezség Kérdéséhez (ib. 1879), on compulsory settlements Az Ipartörvény Reviziója (ib. 1880), on the revision of the industrial laws A Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamarák Reformja (ib. 1882), on the reform of the Hungarian board of trade and commerce and Zsidó Felekezeti Ügyek Rendezése (ib. 1888), on the legal regulation of Jewish affairs.

    This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore Singer, Ludwig Venetianer (1901–1906). "Ullmann, Alexander de Erény". In Singer, Isidore et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

This Hungarian biographical article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

This Hungarian history article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

William Ludwig

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Ludwig Drums: Today’s Products

Today, Ludwig offers a range of drum sets that suit players of varying needs and wants.

Ludwig Vintage Select Drum Kit

If you are looking for something most resembling the famous Ludwig kits of the 1960s, then the Ludwig Vintage Select Series has you covered. This recently released range is even completely finished in nickel-plated classic hardware – the first time Ludwig has done this in over 50 years.

Ludwig Legacy Drum Kit

The most popular Ludwig drums range (and arguably the one held in the highest regard by players) is the Ludwig Legacy Series. It comes in both mahogany (3-ply Mahogany/Poplar/Mahogany shell with solid 1/4″ thick maple reinforcement rings) and maple (1/16″ Maple Outer Ply, 1/8″ Poplar Core Ply, 1/16″ Maple Inner Ply with 1/4″ Solid Maple Reinforcement Rings), combining the classic Ludwig shell designs with a modern twist. Like the Vintage Select Series, these Ludwig kits come in a variety of finishes, including the sparkle and oyster pearl finishes which have become synonymous with Ludwig drum sets.

Ludwig Vistalite Drum Kit

The Ludwig Vistalite kit made famous by John Bonham is still being made today. It is available in a range of colours including amber, blue, yellow, clear, smoke, pink, and Red-Yellow-Green Island Sunset. They feature the classic blue/olive-style badges from the 1970s, large classic lugs, classic brackets, curved spurs, and vibra-band suspension tom mounts. The older Ludwig Vistalite range has had issues of drums cracking in the past, and Ludwig claims to have solved this issue with stricter manufacturing guidelines, a fully stabilized shell, and dual reinforced seams.

Ludwig Pocket Kit Drum Set

Of course, as with most world-renowned drum manufacturers in the 21 st century, it is imperative that they offer suitable kits to kids, beginners, and intermediate players. To this end, Ludwig offers the Pocket Kit Series which is designed for 4-10-year-old drummers in mind. This was created as a result of a collaboration with Ahmir ‘Questlove’ Thompson, the drummer from the legendary hip-hop group The Roots. It comes with a 16” bass drum, 12” snare drum, 10” rack tom, and a 13” floor tom, as well as hi-hats and a crash/ride cymbal – quite simply an affordable and accessible way for kids to get started on their drumming journey.

Ludwig Accent & Evolution Drum Kits

For older beginners and intermediate players, the Ludwig Accent Series and Evolution Series are good options. The Accent Series is an out-of-the-box solution for the new drummer that needs everything at an affordable price. The Evolution Series is an upgrade on the Accent, as it offers double-braced hardware and is shipped with Zildjian I-Series cymbals included. It also boasts a choice of set-ups, including a 6-piece option with a second 14吊 floor tom. Both of these ranges come in a variety of colors.

Ludwig Breakbeats Drum Set

Another fruitful result of Ludwig’s collaboration with Questlove is the Ludwig Breakbeats Series. According to Questlove himself,

“I wanted to build a device that was apartment-friendly and compact for the street musician, but also something that was quality-sounding. A gritty, raw, ‘break-able’ kit for gigging in clubs that you can fit in a cab. Breakbeats by Questlove does it all.”

The kit comes with a 14同” bass drum, 7吆” tom, and 13吉” floor tom. It is also equipped with multi-purpose bags which are not only for transporting the kit easily but also for muting the drums to suit your setting. It comes in three sparkle finishes and is perfect for the busker on-the-move, as well as those with limited space to practice.

James William Ludwig (1861 - 1950)

Residence Age: 36 Occupation: Farmer AbleToSpeakEnglish: Yes CanRead: Yes CanWrite: No EnumerationDistrict: 0096 HomeMortgaged: F HomeOwnership: O MonthsUnEmployedPastYear: 0 OwnsFarm: F YearsMarried: 16 MaritalStatus: Married RelationToHead: Head. 1900 Marion, Ozark, Missouri, USA. Map: Latitude: N38.6989. Longitude: W92.3702. [9] [10] Age: 36 Occupation: Farmer AbleToSpeakEnglish: Yes CanRead: Yes CanWrite: No EnumerationDistrict: 0096 HomeMortgaged: F HomeOwnership: O MonthsUnEmployedPastYear: 0 OwnsFarm: F YearsMarried: 16 MaritalStatus: Married RelationToHead: Head. 1900 Marion, Ozark, Missouri, USA. Map: Latitude: N38.6989. Longitude: W92.3702. [11]

Marriage Husband James William Ludwig. Wife Lucy (Lucinda) Isabelle Williams. Child: @[email protected] Child: Clarence Arthur Ludwig. Child: Carrie Mae Ludwig. Child: Dorothy Pearl Ludwig. Child: Martha Alice Ludwig. Child: John Franklin Ludwig. Child: Claud Vernon Ludwig. Child: James Melvin Ludwig. Child: Eliza Rachel Ludwig. Child: Clara Belle Ludwig. Child: o-o George Alfred Ludwig. Child: Lula Ethel Ludwig. Child: Oliver Gustus Ludwig. Child: Annie Ellen Ludwig. Marriage 6 MAR 1884. Clinton Co Ohio. [12] [13] Marriage 6 MAR 1884. Clinton, Ohio, USA. Map: Latitude: N39.4113. Longitude: W83.8079. [14]


Trifenyylimetyylikloridi eli trityylikloridi eli trifenyylikloorimetaani (C19H15Cl) on aromaattinen organohalogeeniyhdiste. Yhdistettä käytetään orgaanisissa synteeseissä muun muassa polysakkaridi- ja peptidikemiassa.

CAS-numero 76-83-5
IUPAC-nimi [Kloori(difenyyli)metyyli]bentseeni
SMILES C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C2=CC=CC=C2)(C3=CC=CC=C3)Cl [1]
Kemiallinen kaava C19H15Cl
Moolimassa 278,76 g/mol
Tiheys 1,141 g/cm³
Sulamispiste 109,2 °C [2]
Kiehumispiste 310 °C [2]
Liukoisuus Ei liukene veteen
Infobox OK Virheellinen NIMI-arvo

Huoneenlämpötilassa trifenyylimetyylikloridi on valkoinen kiinteä aine. Yhdiste ei liukene veteen, mutta liukenee useimpiin orgaanisiin liuottimiin kuten dikloorimetaaniin, dimetyyliformamidiin ja pyridiiniin. [3]

Trifenyylimetyylikloridia voidaan käyttää sekä karbokationien, karbanionien että radikaalien lähteenä. Trifenyylimetyylikloridi reagoi esimerkiksi SN1-reaktiolla muodostaen välituotteena trifenyylimetyyli- eli trityylikationin [4] . Trifenyylimetyylikationi on erityisen stabiili konjugaation vuoksi ja muodostuu muun muassa, kun trifenyylikloorimetaania liuotetaan polaariseen ei-nukleofiiliseen liuottimeen kuten rikkidioksidiin [5] . Erittäin emäksisissä olosuhteissa esimerkiksi natriumin dietyylieetteriliuoksessa muodostuu trifenyylimetyylikarbanionin sisältävä organometalliyhdiste trifenyylimetyylinatrium [6] . Eräiden metallien, kuten hopean vaikutuksesta trifenyylimetyylikloridi muodostaa trifenyylimetyyliradikaalin. [7]

Trifenyylimetyylikloridia käytetään orgaanisissa synteeseissä liittämään alkoholeihin, karboksyylihappoihin, tioleihin tai amiineihin suojaryhmäksi trifenyylimetyyli- eli trityyliryhmä. [3] Tätä käytetään syntetisoitaessa muun muassa polypeptidejä ja polysakkarideja. Liuottimena suojausreaktioissa käytetään pyridiiniä, joka myös toimii heikkona emäksenä reaktiossa. Trifenyylimetyyliryhmäsuojauksen voi poistaa heikkojen happojen avulla. [9] [10]

Watch the video: William Kramps le tueur de boucher-Ludwig von 88 (May 2022).


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