History Podcasts

The Silent Service in World War II, ed. Edward Monroe-Jones and Michael Green

The Silent Service in World War II, ed. Edward Monroe-Jones and Michael Green

The Silent Service in World War II, ed. Edward Monroe-Jones and Michael Green

The Silent Service in World War II, ed. Edward Monroe-Jones and Michael Green

The Story of the U.S. Navy Submarine Forces in the Words of the Men Who Lived It

The US Submarine service played a major part in the American victory in the Pacific, sinking nearly three thousand Japanese ships (about three-quarters of them the crucial merchant ships that kept the Japanese home islands supplied. By the end of the war Japan had been cut off from her overseas empire and the resources she had gone to war to secure were completely denied to her.

This book consists of forty-six individual stories, most of them written by the submariners themselves (plus one nurse being evacuated and an airman rescued by a submarine).

This book follows the evolution of the US Submarine service from the unpromising situation early in 1942, when a handful of out-dated boats attempted to slow down the initial Japanese advance, often fighting their own machines as much as the Japanese. This early part of the book contains a series of tales of near-misses, temperamental boats and narrow escapes from danger.

As the war went on the newer fleet boats took over, and the tide turned against the Japanese. There are still tales of lost boats and near-misses, but also more stories of success, or light-hearted tales such as that of the dog that served as a mascot on one submarine.

This collection of first-hand accounts gives a really fascinating picture of wartime service in submarines, from the many perils of a service in which 52 subs were lost to the pleasures of serving as part of a small and almost always friendly and welcome crew of highly trained experts.

Part One: Prewar and Early War Stories (1941-1942)
1 - Submarine School, Cornelius R. Bartholomew
2 - Sea Dragon's Prop Wash, J. Killin
3 - A Vanishing Day-dream, Cornelius R. Bartholomew
4 - Operational Readiness on December 7, 1941, Frank E. Perry
5 - Rest and Recreation, Frank Kimball
6 - The First and only Patrol of S-27 (SS-132), George J. Herold
7 - S-37's Voyage Home, Robert B. Lander
8 - Bob Rose and Sargo's Australian Welcome, Doug Rhymes
9 - Escape by Submarine, Lucy I Wilson
10 - The Doubtful Tale of the S-36, Alfred Sims
11 - Rivets in the O-2, Stanley Lambkin
12 - Aground on a Reef, Frank Bowman

Part Two: Mid-War Stories (1943)
13 - Pompon Evades Torpedoes, Charles Foskett
14 - Gun Boss Pay, Edward Crawfoot
15 - Loss of the USS Grenadier (SS-210), Robert W. Palmer
16 - Midway, Our Refuge of 1943, Jack Quade
17 - Loose Torpedo at Pearl Harbor, James H. Allen
18 - Second Patrol of the USS Bluefish (SS-222), Edwin J. Shepherd JR
19 - S-48, My First Boat, Churchill 'Jim' Campbell
20 - The Ryuho' Last Stand, John M. Good

Part Three: Late War Stories (1944-1945)
21 - Submarine on the Loose, William Dreher
22 - USS Ray's Great Conning Tower Flood, Hal Moyer
23 - Ambush on Borneo, Ken Harrington
24 - Pogy' Stowaway, W.E. Battenfield
25 - The Battle of the Philippine Sea, Ernest J. Zellmer
26 - Penny Picked Me, Bill Gleason
27 - Story of the USS Flier Second Patrol and its Survivors, Alvin E. Jacobson
28 - Left on the Bridge, John Paul Jones
29 - Dying of the Emperor on Palau, Norman R. Direy
30 - Picking up the Left-overs off Palauig Point, R. C Gillette
31 - A Total Loss, Farrell Stearns
32 - The Sape Strait Shooting Incident of November 1944, H.E. Miller
33 - From the Perspective of an Aviator, C.B. Smith
34 - A Submarine Home, Myron Alexander
35 - My First War Patrol, Joseph Corneau
36 - Bucket Brigade, Hank 'Nate' Henderson
37 - Three Submarines in Three Days, Hughstone F. Lowder
38 - Bing is Missing, Bill Gleason
39 - Absence without Leave, March 1945, Joe O'Rourke
40 - From Kamikaze Attack to Typhoon, K.F. Welty
41 - The Sinking of Hatsutaka, Worth Scanland
42 - The Man Who Never Made a Mistake, Jack Blumeberg
43 - Gabilan's Aviator, Robert Talbot
44 - The Capture of I-401, Alex Leitch
45 - From Perch to Prisoner, B. R. Van Buskirk
46 - The S-40 Leaves the Atomic Age, George Stannard

Editors: Edward Monroe-Jones and Michael Green
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 262
Publisher: Casemate
Year: 2012



The Best Years of Our Lives

The Best Years of Our Lives (aka Glory for Me and Home Again) is a 1946 American epic drama film directed by William Wyler, and starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Dana Andrews, Teresa Wright, Virginia Mayo and Harold Russell. The film is about three United States servicemen re-adjusting to civilian life after coming home from World War II.

The film was a critical and commercial success. It won seven Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (William Wyler), Best Actor (Fredric March), Best Supporting Actor (Harold Russell), Best Film Editing (Daniel Mandell), Best Adapted Screenplay (Robert E. Sherwood), and Best Original Score (Hugo Friedhofer). [4] It was the highest-grossing film in both the United States and UK since the release of Gone with the Wind, and is the sixth most-attended film of all time in the UK, with over 20 million tickets sold. [5]

In 1989, The Best Years of Our Lives was one of the first 25 films selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". [6] [7]


World War I Draft Registration Cards
Draft registration cards for more than 24 million men who registered for the WWI draft in 1917 and 1918.

U.S. World War I Mothers' Pilgrimage
More than 10,000 names of widows and mothers entitled to make the U.S. government sponsored pilgrimage to visit their loved one's grave in Europe.

World War I, World War II and Korean War Casualty Listings
Names of more than 135,000 casualties from World War I, World War II and the Korean War.


Contents

Robinson's original name was Emanuel Goldenberg and he was born into a Yiddish-speaking Romanian Jewish family in Bucharest, the son of Sarah (née Guttman) and Morris Goldenberg, [ dubious – discuss ] a builder. [6]

After one of his brothers was attacked by an anti-semitic mob, the family decided to emigrate to the United States. [2] Robinson arrived in New York City on February 21, 1904. [7] "At Ellis Island I was born again," he wrote. "Life for me began when I was 10 years old." [2] He grew up on the Lower East Side, [8] : 91 and had his Bar Mitzvah at First Roumanian-American Congregation. [9] He attended Townsend Harris High School and then the City College of New York, planning to become a criminal attorney. [10] An interest in acting and performing in front of people led to him winning an American Academy of Dramatic Arts scholarship, [10] after which he changed his name to Edward G. Robinson (the G. standing for his original surname). [10]

He served in the United States Navy during World War I, but was never sent overseas. [11]

Theatre Edit

He began his acting career in the Yiddish Theatre District [12] [13] [14] in 1913, he made his Broadway debut in 1915. [2] He made his film debut in Arms and the Man (1916).

In 1923, he made his named debut as E. G. Robinson in the silent film, The Bright Shawl. [2]

The Racket Edit

He played a snarling gangster in the 1927 Broadway police/crime drama The Racket, which led to his being cast in similar film roles, beginning with The Hole in the Wall (1929) with Claudette Colbert for Paramount.

One of many actors who saw their careers flourish in the new sound film era rather than falter, he made only three films prior to 1930, but left his stage career that year and made 14 films between 1930 and 1932.

Robinson went to Universal for Night Ride (1930) and MGM for A Lady to Love (1930) directed by Victor Sjöström. At Universal he was in Outside the Law and East Is West (both 1930), then he did The Widow from Chicago (1931) at First National.

Little Caesar Edit

Robinson was established as a film actor. What made him a star was an acclaimed performance as the gangster Caesar Enrico "Rico" Bandello in Little Caesar (1931) at Warner Bros.

Robinson signed a long term contract with Warners. They put him in another gangster film, Smart Money (1931), his only movie with James Cagney. He was reunited with Mervyn LeRoy, director of Little Caesar, in Five Star Final (1931), playing a journalist, and played a Tong gangster in The Hatchet Man (1932).

Robinson made a third film with LeRoy, Two Seconds (1932) then did a melodrama directed by Howard Hawks, Tiger Shark (1932).

Warners tried him in a biopic, Silver Dollar (1932), where Robinson played Horace Tabor, a comedy, The Little Giant (1933) and a romance, I Loved a Woman (1933).

Robinson was then in Dark Hazard (1934), and The Man with Two Faces (1934).

He went to Columbia for The Whole Town's Talking (1935), a comedy directed by John Ford. Sam Goldwyn borrowed him for Barbary Coast (1935), again directed by Hawks.

Back at Warners he did Bullets or Ballots (1936) then he went to Britain for Thunder in the City (1937). He made Kid Galahad (1937) with Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. MGM borrowed him for The Last Gangster (1937) then he did a comedy A Slight Case of Murder (1938). Again with Bogart in a supporting role, he was in The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse (1938) then he was borrowed by Columbia for I Am the Law (1938).

World War II Edit

At the time World War II broke out in Europe, he played an FBI agent in Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939), the first American film which portrayed Nazism as a threat to the United States.

He volunteered for military service in June 1942 but was disqualified due to his age which was 48, [15] although he became an active and vocal critic of fascism and Nazism during that period. [16]

MGM borrowed him for Blackmail, (1939). Then to avoid being typecast he played the biomedical scientist and Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich in Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet (1940) and played Paul Julius Reuter in A Dispatch from Reuter's (1940). [17] Both films were biographies of prominent Jewish public figures. In between, he and Bogart starred in Brother Orchid (1940). [17]

Robinson was teamed up with John Garfield in The Sea Wolf (1941) and George Raft in Manpower (1941). He went to MGM for Unholy Partners (1942) and made a comedy Larceny, Inc. (1942).

Post-Warners Edit

Robinson was one of several stars in Tales of Manhattan (1942) and Flesh and Fantasy (1943).

He did war films: Destroyer (1943) at Columbia, and Tampico (1944) at Fox. At Paramount he was in Billy Wilder's Double Indemnity (1944) with Fred MacMurray and Barbara Stanwyck where his riveting soliloquy on insurance actuarial tables (written by Raymond Chandler) is considered a career showstopper, and at Columbia he was in Mr. Winkle Goes to War (1944). He then performed with Joan Bennett and Dan Duryea in Fritz Lang's The Woman in the Window (1944) and Scarlet Street (1945) where he played a criminal painter.

At MGM he was in Our Vines Have Tender Grapes (1945), and then Orson Welles' The Stranger (1946), with Welles and Loretta Young. Robinson followed it with another thriller, The Red House (1947), and starred in an adaptation of All My Sons (1948).

Robinson appeared for director John Huston as the gangster Johnny Rocco in Key Largo (1948), the last of five films which he made with Humphrey Bogart and the only one in which Bogart did not play a supporting role.

He starred in Night Has a Thousand Eyes in 1948 and starred in House of Strangers in 1949.

Greylisting Edit

Robinson found it hard to get work after his greylisting. [ citation needed ] He starred in low budget films: Actors and Sin (1952), Vice Squad (1953) with brief appearances by second-billed Paulette Goddard, Big Leaguer (1953) with Vera-Ellen, The Glass Web (1953) with John Forsythe, Black Tuesday (1954) with Peter Graves, The Violent Men (1955) with Glenn Ford and Barbara Stanwyck, the well-received Tight Spot (1955) with Ginger Rogers and Brian Keith, A Bullet for Joey (1955) with George Raft, Illegal (1955) with Nina Foch, and Hell on Frisco Bay (1956) with Alan Ladd.

His career's rehabilitation received a boost in 1954, when the noted anti-communist film director Cecil B. DeMille cast him as the traitorous Dathan in The Ten Commandments. The film was released in 1956, as was his psychological thriller Nightmare.

After a subsequent short absence from the screen, Robinson's film career—augmented by an increasing number of television roles—restarted for good in 1958/59, when he was second-billed after Frank Sinatra in the 1959 release A Hole in the Head.

Supporting actor Edit

Robinson went to Europe for Seven Thieves (1960). He had support roles in My Geisha (1962), Two Weeks in Another Town (1962), Sammy Going South (1963), The Prize (1963), Robin and the 7 Hoods (1964), Good Neighbor Sam (1964), Cheyenne Autumn (1964), and The Outrage (1964).

He was second-billed under Steve McQueen with his name above the title in The Cincinnati Kid (1965 McQueen had idolized Robinson while growing up and opted for him when Spencer Tracy insisted on top billing for the same role), and was top billed in The Blonde from Peking. He also appeared in Grand Slam (1967) starring Janet Leigh and Klaus Kinski.

Robinson was originally cast in the role of Dr. Zaius in Planet Of The Apes (1968) and he even went so far as to film a screen test with Charlton Heston. However, Robinson dropped out of the project before its production began due to heart problems and concerns over the long hours which he would have needed to spend under the heavy ape makeup. He was replaced by Maurice Evans.

His later appearances included The Biggest Bundle of Them All (1968) starring Robert Wagner and Raquel Welch, Never a Dull Moment (1968) with Dick Van Dyke, It's Your Move (1968), Mackenna's Gold (1969) starring Gregory Peck and Omar Sharif, and the Night Gallery episode “The Messiah on Mott Street" (1971).

The last scene which Robinson filmed was a euthanasia sequence, with his friend and co-star Charlton Heston, in the science fiction cult film Soylent Green (1973) he died only twelve days later.

Heston, as president of the Screen Actors Guild, presented Robinson with its annual award in 1969, "in recognition of his pioneering work in organizing the union, his service during World War II, and his 'outstanding achievement in fostering the finest ideals of the acting profession.'" [8] : 124

Robinson was never nominated for an Academy Award, but in 1973 he was awarded an honorary Oscar in recognition that he had "achieved greatness as a player, a patron of the arts and a dedicated citizen . in sum, a Renaissance man". [2] He had been notified of the honor, but he died two months before the award ceremony took place, so the award was accepted by his widow, Jane Robinson. [2]

Radio Edit

From 1937 to 1942, Robinson starred as Steve Wilson, editor of the Illustrated Press, in the newspaper drama Big Town. [18] He also portrayed hardboiled detective Sam Spade for a Lux Radio Theatre adaptation of The Maltese Falcon. During the 1940s he also performed on CBS Radio's "Cadena de las Américas" network broadcasts to South America in collaboration with Nelson Rockefeller's cultural diplomacy program at the U.S. State Department's Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. [19]

Robinson married his first wife, stage actress Gladys Lloyd, born Gladys Lloyd Cassell, in 1927 she was the former wife of Ralph L. Vestervelt and the daughter of Clement C. Cassell, an architect, sculptor and artist. The couple had one son, Edward G. Robinson, Jr. (a.k.a. Manny Robinson, 1933–1974), as well as a daughter from Gladys Robinson's first marriage. [20] In 1956 the couple divorced. In 1958 he married Jane Bodenheimer, a dress designer professionally known as Jane Arden. Thereafter he also maintained a home in Palm Springs, California. [21]

In noticeable contrast to many of his onscreen characters, Robinson was a sensitive, soft-spoken and cultured man who spoke seven languages. [2] Remaining a liberal Democrat, he attended the 1960 Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, California. [22] He was a passionate art collector, eventually building up a significant private collection. In 1956, however, he was forced to sell his collection to pay for his divorce settlement with Gladys Robinson his finances had also suffered due to underemployment in the early 1950s. [8] : 120

Robinson died of bladder cancer at Cedars Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles [23] on January 26, 1973. Services were held at Temple Israel in Los Angeles where Charlton Heston delivered the eulogy. [24] : 131 Over 1,500 friends of Robinson attended with another 500 crowded outside. [8] : 125 His body was then flown to New York where it was entombed in a crypt in the family mausoleum at Beth-El Cemetery in Brooklyn. [24] : 131 Among his pallbearers were Jack L. Warner, Hal B. Wallis, Mervyn LeRoy, George Burns, Sam Jaffe, and Frank Sinatra. [2]

In October 2000, Robinson's image was imprinted on a U.S. postage stamp, its sixth in its Legends of Hollywood series. [8] : 125 [25]

During the 1930s, Robinson was an outspoken public critic of fascism and Nazism, and he also donated more than $250,000 to 850 political and charitable organizations between 1939 and 1949. He was host to the Committee of 56 which gathered at his home on December 9, 1938, signing a "Declaration of Democratic Independence" which called for a boycott of all German-made products. [16]

Although he attempted to enlist in the military at the outbreak of World War II, he was unable to do so because of his age [15] instead, the Office of War Information appointed him as a Special Representative based in London. [8] : 106 From there, taking advantage of his multilingual skills, he delivered radio addresses in over six languages to European countries which had fallen under Nazi domination. [8] : 106 His talent as a radio speaker in the U.S. had previously been recognized by the American Legion, which had given him an award for his "outstanding contribution to Americanism through his stirring patriotic appeals." [8] : 106 Robinson was also an active member of the Hollywood Democratic Committee, serving on its executive board in 1944, during which time he became an "enthusiastic" campaigner for Roosevelt's reelection that same year. [8] : 107 During the 1940s Robinson also contributed to the cultural diplomacy initiatives of Roosevelt's Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in support of Pan-Americanism through his broadcasts to South America on the CBS "Cadena da las Américas" radio network. [19]

In early July 1944, less than a month after the Invasion of Normandy by Allied forces, Robinson traveled to Normandy to entertain the troops, becoming the first movie star to go there for the USO. [8] : 106 He personally donated $100,000 ($1,500,000 in 2015 dollars) to the USO. [8] : 107 After returning to the U.S. he continued his active involvement in the war effort by going to shipyards and defense plants in order to inspire workers, in addition to appearing at rallies in order to help sell war bonds. [8] : 107 After the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, while he was not a supporter of Communism, he appeared at Soviet war relief rallies in order to give moral aid to America's new ally, which he said could join "together in their hatred of Hitlerism." [8] : 107

After the war ended, Robinson publicly spoke out in support of democratic rights for all Americans, especially in demanding equality for Blacks in the workplace. He endorsed the Fair Employment Practices Commission's call to end workplace discrimination. [8] : 109 Black leaders praised him as "one of the great friends of the Negro and a great advocator of Democracy." [8] : 109 Robinson also campaigned for the civil rights of African-Americans, helping many people to overcome segregation and discrimination. [26]

During the years when Robinson spoke out against fascism and Nazism, he was not a supporter of Communism, but he did not criticize the Soviet Union which he saw as an ally against Hitler. However, notes the film historian Steven J. Ross, "activists who attacked Hitler without simultaneously attacking Stalin were vilified by conservative critics as either Communists, Communist dupes, or, at best, as naive liberal dupes." [8] : 128 In addition, Robinson learned that 11 out of the more than 850 charities and groups which he had helped over the previous decade were listed as Communist front organizations by the FBI. [27] As a result, he was called to testify in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1950 and 1952 and he was also threatened with blacklisting. [28]

As it appears in the full House Un-American Activities Committee transcript for April 30, 1952, Robinson "named names" of Communist sympathizers (Albert Maltz, Dalton Trumbo, John Howard Lawson, Frank Tuttle, and Sidney Buchman) and repudiated some of the organizations which he had belonged to in the 1930s and 1940s. [28] [29] He came to realize, "I was duped and used." [8] : 121 His own name was cleared, but in the aftermath, his career noticeably suffered, because he was offered smaller roles and they were offered to him less frequently. In October 1952, he wrote an article which was titled "How the Reds made a Sucker Out of Me", and it was published in the American Legion Magazine. [30] The chair of the Committee, Francis E. Walter, told Robinson at the end of his testimonies, that the Committee "never had any evidence presented to indicate that you were anything more than a very choice sucker." [8] : 122

Robinson has been the inspiration for a number of animated television characters, usually caricatures of his most distinctive 'snarling gangster' guise. An early version of the gangster character Rocky, featured in the Bugs Bunny cartoon Racketeer Rabbit, shared his likeness. This version of the character also appears briefly in Justice League, in the episode "Comfort and Joy", as an alien with Robinson's face and non-human body, who hovers past the screen as a background character.

Similar caricatures also appeared in The Coo-Coo Nut Grove, Thugs with Dirty Mugs and Hush My Mouse. Another character based on Robinson's tough-guy image was The Frog (Chauncey "Flat Face" Frog) from the cartoon series Courageous Cat and Minute Mouse. The voice of B.B. Eyes in The Dick Tracy Show was based on Robinson, with Mel Blanc and Jerry Hausner sharing voicing duties. The Wacky Races animated series character 'Clyde' from the Ant Hill Mob was based on Robinson's Little Caesar persona.

In the 1989 animated series C.O.P.S. the mastermind villain Brandon "Big Boss" Babel's voice sounded just like Edward G. Robinson when he would talk to his gangsters. [ citation needed ]

Voice actor Hank Azaria has noted that the voice of Simpsons character police chief Clancy Wiggum is an impression of Robinson. [31] This has been explicitly joked about in episodes of the show. In "The Day the Violence Died" (1996), a character states that Chief Wiggum is clearly based on Robinson. In 2008's "Treehouse of Horror XIX", Wiggum and Robinson's ghost each accuse the other of being rip-offs. [ citation needed ]

Another caricature of Robinson appears in two episodes of Star Wars: The Clone Wars season two, in the person of Lt. Tan Divo. [ citation needed ] Arok the Hutt was inspired by Edward G. Robinson’s gangster portrayals in Star Wars: The Clone Wars

Robinson was played by Michael Stuhlbarg in the 2015 film Trumbo. His portrayal as a man who named supposed communists is controversial.


Old Hollywood star ​Spencer Tracy's supposed secret life

In October 2016, Vanity Fair effectively "outed" Boys Town actor Spencer Tracy by publishing an excerpt of the book, Kate: The Woman Who Was Hepburn, by William J. Mann. It was Scotty Bowers — the aforementioned "pimp for Hollywood's closeted movie stars" (via NPR) — who first shared this particular piece of gossip with the author. Bowers claimed Tracy was one of several stars he "serviced" out of a gas station located on Hollywood Boulevard and North Van Ness Avenue, and he swore he slept with Tracy "on numerous occasions."

At the opening-night party for the documentary, Scotty and the Secret History of Hollywood, in August 2018, IndieWire reportedly asked Bowers a particularly pointed question: "So how gay was Spencer Tracy?" Bowers gamely replied, "He got drunk and thanked the man beside him in the morning for taking care of him."

To that end, there are rumors that Tracy and Kate Hepburn's alleged decades-long affair wasn't quite what it seemed. "Hepburn and Spencer Tracy were both gay," activist and author Larry Kramer told The Hollywood Reporter in 2015. "They were publicly paired together by the studio. Everyone in Hollywood knows this is true, but of course I haven't seen it printed anywhere."


U.S.S. Seawolf

The USS Seawolf was one of the greatest submarine raiders of all time. Having narrowly avoided the attack on Pearl Harbor the Seawolf set out for the seas of the Pacific to wreak havoc on Japanese shipping. Joseph Melvin Eckberg was on the Seawolf from her maiden voyage and remained with her until January 1943. As chief radioman he was instrumental in assisting Captain Frederick Warder to find and destroy enemy targets. From the claustrophobia of being trapped under water and the overwhelming fear of depth charges to the joys of aiding the war-effort and the camaraderie on the ship.


Reviews - Please select the tabs below to change the source of reviews.

Different than I thought but great.

Each chapter is a story from an individual submariner. It was quite interesting, very informative, and in some part funny. Definitely worth the listen.

6 people found this helpful

Disappointing

The most interesting passage in this book comes in the last chapter, when the crews return to California to deliver their subs to the ship breakers. The sailor who wrote that chapter tells about his Chief of the Boat asking him if he might want to make a career in the Navy. He dutifully says he might, even though he's no longer sure. Maybe one reason is the COB sitting on a bunk before him, this grizzled warrior now smelling of liquor and evidently dreading peacetime life.

The narrator ends with a description of heroic sub after sub being hauled off for scrap. The civilian breaking crews stand on the decks, smoking. The wartime sailors watch their boats from the shore for a while, then walk away.

I learned something about loss in that chapter. It was a little like Audie Murphy knowing he's good with an M1 Garand, but wondering what he's going to do with that skill now that the fighting's over.

I'm sure these sailors went to Hell and Back, too, but for most of the book, you'd never know it. Most of them don't seem to let the reader too deeply into their experience. Maybe it's the pervasive use of the passive voice. People don't seem to do much. Things happen to them, or around them, things that they describe as mildly interesting spectacles. Or maybe it's the editors imposing an oddly flat style to what should surely be gripping stories. Here are young men being depth-charged, or surfacing in the middle of a convoy with all tubes firing, or getting left on deck by mistake when a sub has to dive in a hurry, and it's all oddly uniform in its lack of engagement.

If I had been one of those sailors and had tried to tell what had really happened only to see my story polished flat by the editors, I'd be pretty angry. I can't imagine setting out to tell a story that was important to me and using such lackluster language, working so hard to keep my experience at arm's length. I think I'd either keep my mouth shut, or I'd tell what it was like.

I didn't want blood and thunder. I wanted truth. Most of the time, I got reports.


NATIONAL HISTORY DAY:

These are winning entries from previous National History Day Contests.

The following six National History Day individual documentary winners received the 2020 Next Generation Angels Awards from The Better Angels Society.



PLEASE NOTE: The following documentary projects are hosted on Google Drive. School email accounts may restrict your access to these documentaries. If you experience these issues, please try accessing the videos when you are not logged into your school account.

1st Place Senior Individual Documentary
Summer Royal, The Tereshkova Effect: The Role of Propaganda in Breaking Barriers
As the first place senior division winner, Summer Royal received the Anne Harrington Award, named for the late longtime friend and colleague of Ken Burns.

2nd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Sophia Alleman, FDR and REA: Bright Light and Power to Rural America

3rd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Giuliana Alleva, ”Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work:” Leon Sullivan’s Fight Against Job Discrimination

Julia R. Masterman Secondary School
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Process Paper and Bibliography

1st Place Junior Individual Documentary
Allison Reed, All the World Loves a Baby: Breaking the Two Pound Barrier

Washburn Rural Middle School
Topeka, Kansas
Process Paper and Bibliography

2nd Place Junior Individual Documentary
Rishit Shaquib, Harvey Wiley: The Man Who Changed America One Bite at a Time

3rd Place Junior Individual Documentary
Caroline Bruton, Penicillin, Breaking Baterial Barriers

William Monroe Middle School
St. George, Virginia
Process Paper and Bibliography

Unwelcomed Soldiers Invading a Fraternity: Breaking Gender Barriers in the United States Military
Watch Documentary
Captain Ken Coskey Naval History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Jessie Henderson
Bradley Central High School
Tennessee
Process Paper and Bibliography

To Hell and Back
Watch Documentary
World War I History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Adam Kinder
Impact Early College High School
Texas
Process Paper and Bibliography

Comfort Women: Breaking Silence after Decades of “Shame”
Watch Documentary
World War II History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Yeonwoo Hannah Son
Seoul International School
South Korea
Process Paper and Bibliography

Nixon’s Trip to China: Breaking a Diplomatic Barrier
Watch Documentary
Global Peace Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Allison Bushong
Martin Luther King High School
California
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Fireside Chats: FDR Breaking Barriers in Presidential Communication
Watch Documentary
White House History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Jack Ghormley
Conway Junior High School
Arkansas
Process Paper and Bibliography

Cumann na mBan: During the Easter Rising
Watch Documentary
Irish or Irish American History Prize
Junior Individual Documentary
Dylan Savoie
Applewild School
Massachusetts
Process Paper and Bibliography

Black Angels: Breaking Down Barriers and Fighting for the Right to Be Marines
Watch Documentary
United States Marine Corps History Prize
Junior Individual Documentary
Zackary Howey
Richards Middle School
Michigan
Process Paper and Bibliography

PLEASE NOTE: The following documentary projects are hosted on Google Drive. School email accounts may restrict your access to these documentaries. If you experience these issues, please try accessing the videos when you are not logged into your school account.

Rural Electrification: Breaking Barriers with the Flip of a Switch
Watch Documentary
1st Place Junior Group Documentary
Addison Naslund, Hayden Wahlberg, Lainey Schuknecht, Ben Philips, Josie Jacobs
Akron-Westfield Middle School
Iowa
Process Paper and Bibliography

Breaking the Curfew: The Story of Minoru Yasui
Watch Documentary
1st Place Senior Group Documentary
Alan Zhou and Kyler Wang
Sunset High School & Lincoln High School
Oregon
Process Paper and Bibliography

Kathrine Switzer: How One Run Broke the Barrier of Discrimination in Women’s Athletics
Watch Documentary
2nd Place Junior Group Documentary
Marlena Olson and Sam Newitt
Edison Middle School
South Dakota
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Street That Changed Everything
Watch Documentary
2nd Place Senior Group Documentary
Christian Kilgore, Gabriel Perez, Mikaela Johnson, Hailey Cisneros
Silver High School
New Mexico
Process Paper and Bibliography

Bounding through Barriers: The Sensational Reintroduction of the “Big Bad Wolf” to Yellowstone National Park
Watch Documentary
3rd Place Junior Group Documentary
Keari Ong, Amber Lee, Jillian Mabasa
Singapore American School
Singapore
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Week That Changed the World: Nixon’s Groundbreaking Visit to China
Watch Documentary
3rd Place Senior Group Documentary
Ian Castracane, Ryan Luo, Luke McMahon, Chris Domoracki, Leo Greco
Hamilton-Wenham Regional High School
Massachusetts
Process Paper and Bibliography

Freedom Found on a Bootheel Roadside: The 1939 Sharecroppers Strike
Watch Documentary
American Labor History Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Chelsea Swasho, Rylee Taylor
Richland High School
Missouri
Process Paper and Bibliography

Wilma Rudolph: The Will to Change Her World and the Race to See Past Racism
Watch Documentary
African American History Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Emma Langford, Kameron Brough, Rebecca Brough
Lander High School
Wyoming
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Journey to Mars: How Donna Shirley Broke Barriers for Women in Space Engineering
Watch Documentary
Discovery or Exploration in History Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Amelia Peoples, Cate Mossman, Kate Schein
Classen High School of Advanced Studies
Oklahoma
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Harada House: Breaking the Barrier of the 1913 Alien Land Law
Watch Documentary
Immigration History Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Anna Paulsell, Emily Sliwinski, Lauryn Dinh, Sofia Rossi, Tianhui Zhou
International Community School
Washington
Process Paper and Bibliography

From Briggs to Brown: How the Lone Dissent of Justice Julius Waring Broke the Barriers of Segregation and Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
Watch Documentary
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Amy Malt, Eden Stout, Grace Kushigian, Lauren Wilkie
Great Expectations School
North Carolina
Process Paper and Bibliography

Operation Breaking Gender Barriers: The Hello Girls in World War I
Watch Documentary
World War I History Prize
Junior Group Documentary
Raegan Matthews, Reagan Fitzgerald
Dunedin Highland Middle School
Florida
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Apollo Program
Watch Documentary
Discovery or Exploration in History Prize
Junior Group Documentary
Nicola Klarfeld, Sara Weinrod
Deal Middle School
Washington, DC
Process Paper and Bibliography

PLEASE NOTE: The following exhibit projects were created following the 2020 virtual contest guidelines.

Aren’t Lights Grand? Breaking Barriers in History with Rural Electrification
1st Place Junior Individual Exhibit
Laura Huelskamp
Northern Middle School
Maryland

Light, Liberty, and Pride: LGBTQ Activism at UNC-CH
1st Place Senior Individual Exhibit
Rachel Amburose
Watauga High School
North Carolina

The Oxnard Strike of 1903: Breaking Barriers of Racial Representation in the Labor Force
1st Place Junior Group Exhibit
Anthony Noce, Yashas Mattur, Ankit Rath
Mead Junior High School
Illinois

”B” is for Breaking Barriers: How Sesame Street Revolutionized Children’s Television and Education
1st Place Senior Group Exhibit
ThaoNhi Tran, Clarisse Cabagay, Ayumi Vazquez, Izumi Vazquez
Health Careers High School
Texas

Clarence Walton Lillehei: Breaking the Barriers Surrounding Open-Heart Surgery
2nd Place Junior Individual Exhibit
Annika Hellmark
Sunrise Park Middle School
Minnesota

Brownie Seals the Deal: Tupperware Parties Break Economic Barriers for Women
2nd Place Senior Individual Exhibit
Allison Tate
Whitehall High School
Michigan

”A World Not Built for Me” – Steve Serio, Timothy Nugent Strives for a More Accessible World
2nd Place Junior Group Exhibit
Colin Sarabosing and Brandon Luo
Tyee Middle School
Washington

The Fight Against Segregated Seattle: How the Seattle Open Housing Campaign Broke the Barriers of Inequality
2nd Place Senior Group Exhibit
Haley van Meurs, Liana Moldovanu, Isabelle Garrard
Inglemoor High School
Washington

Cher Ami: A Pigeon’s Role in Breaking World War I Communication Barriers
3rd Place Junior Individual Exhibit
Summer Short
DCS Montessori Middle School
Colorado

Mendez v. Westminster: The Trailblazer That Led the Way to School Desegregation
3rd Place Senior Individual Exhibit
Alicia Dinwiddie
Summit High School
Tennessee

Brothers Like These and the Barriers They Faced after Vietnam
3rd Place Junior Group Exhibit
Sara Barlowe, Brady Clausen, Grace Armistead, Trapper Alonso
Cane Creek Middle School
North Carolina

Coco Chanel’s Unraveling of the Corset
3rd Place Senior Group Exhibit
Melinda Rolls and Abbigail Cote
Merrimack High School
New Hampshire

Breaking the Wrong Barriers: The Kara Hultgreen Controversy
Captain Ken Coskey Naval History Prize
Junior Individual Exhibit
Kathryn Lucente
Red Maple Academy
Connecticut

Woman vs. Woman
Equality in History Prize
Junior Group Exhibit
Alexa Delgado and McKayla Howerton
Canton Elementary School
Oklahoma

Julia Child: Redefining Gender Roles One Boeuf Bourguignon at a Time
Women’s History Prize
Junior Group Exhibit
Anna Bronwyn Turney and Natalie Harris
Singapore American School
Singapore

The Erie Canal: Breaking the Barrier for American Immigration
Irish or Irish American History Prize
Senior Group Exhibit
AJ Camacho, Campbell Koella, Hannah Rasmussen
Clayton-Bradley Academy
Tennessee

Ex parte Mitsuye Endo: Breaking through Barbed Wire
3rd Place Junior Paper
Natalie Miller
Lakeside Middle School
California

The 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-in: Breaking a Barrier to Read at a Public Library
African American History Prize
Senior Paper
Patrick Ostermann-Healey
George Washington Middle School
Virginia

”Si, Se Puede:” Dolores Huerta Breaking Barriers for Farmworkers’ Rights
Latino American History Prize
Junior Paper
Brendan Shek
Jericho Middle School
New York

Curing the Blue: Breaking Barriers for Cardiology
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers Prize
Junior Paper
Pragya Chauhan
Washington Junior High School
Arkansas

PLEASE NOTE: The following performance projects were created following the 2020 virtual contest guidelines.

Willamina Fleming: Breaking Barriers with a Universe of Glass
1st Place Junior Individual Performance
Isabella Hardy
Gryphon Academy
North Carolina

Karen Horney vs. Sigmund Freud: Breaking Barriers in Psychoanalysis for Women as a Woman
1st Place Senior Individual Performance
Catherine Boyette
Hendersonville High School
North Carolina

”Reeding” Between the Lines: How Reed v. Reed Opened Doors for Gender Equality
1st Place Junior Group Performance
Sophia Pariona and Molly Whyte
Mountain View Middle School
Idaho

Driving Towards the Future: How Lincoln Highway Broke Barriers in Automobile Travel
1st Place Senior Group Performance
Michaela Sirois, Marissa Sirois, Alec Sirois
Heritage High School
Colorado

Breaking Barriers to Restore 1855 Treaty Fishing Rights
2nd Place Junior Individual Performance
Colton McCall
Pleasant Valley Middle School
Washington

The Story of Starlight: Women Who Changed Our Understanding of the Universe
2nd Place Senior Individual Performance
Lilianna Hug
Salamander Meadows Homeschool
Pennsylvania

Freewheeling for Feminism: Breaking Barriers on a Bicycle
2nd Place Junior Group Performance
Paige Metzler, Adrianne Paderna, Jillian Leslie
Alta Sierra Intermediate School
California

Tinker v. Des Moines: Breaking Barriers for Students’ First Amendment Rights
2nd Place Senior Group Performance
Danielle Cabrera, Avery Hansberger, Katherine Savage
Martin Luther King High School, John W. North High School
California

Margaret Haley: The Lady Labor Slugger
3rd Place Junior Individual Performance
Lily Miller
Corwin International Magnet School
Colorado

Breaking Barriers: Concept Over Craft – Or – What The Mutt?
3rd Place Senior Individual Performance
Jessica Cline
George Washington High School
Iowa

Breaking Barriers: How Swinwear Paved the Way for Women’s Rights
3rd Place Junior Group Performance
Eden Smith, Annika Houghton, Auden Ho
Laie Elementary School
Hawaii

Felix Tijerina: Breaking Barriers by Opening Doors for Latin Americans
3rd Place Senior Group Performance
Mathew Montiel, Monserrat Sandoval-Malherbe, Joel Santivanez, Andrea Urbina, Aiden Anzaldua
Veterans Memorial Early College High School
Texas

Breaking the Gender Barrier at the Virginia Military Institute
Equality in History Prize
Senior Group Performance
Scarlett Pleasant, Shayleigh Cire, William Tabor, Willow Lehrer
Liberty High School
Virginia

Justice Louis Brandeis: Breaking Economic, Religious, and Political Barriers
US Constitution Award
Senior Individual Performance
Jack Granahan
Lawrence High School
New Jersey

The Remarkable Ruby Bradley
World War II History Prize
Junior Individual Performance
Louisa Blackmoore
Wydown Middle School
Missouri

Cracking the Bamboo Ceiling: Anna May Wong Increases Representation of Asian Americans in Media
Asian American History Prize
Senior Individual Performance
Alison Chen
Whitehall High School
Michigan

The Syllabary That Shaped the Cherokee Nation
Native American History Prize
Junior Individual Performance
Avary Serpa
St. Philomena’s School
Rhode Island

Concealed in the Shadows: Breaking Principles Washington’s Hidden Army That Won America’s Freedom
George Washington Leadership in History Prize
Junior Group Performance
Gia Gupta, Jiwoo Lee, Karina Gupta
Rosa International Middle School
New Jersey

Oyama v. California: Confronting Alien Land Laws
1st Place Junior Individual Website
Thanhtruc Mai
Columbia Academy
Minnesota

”Deeds, Not Words:” The Suffragettes, Women Breaking Barriers
1st Place Senior Individual Website
Aditi Bhat
Belton New Tech High School at Waskow
Texas

The Four Pests Campaign: The Consequences of Breaking Ecological Barriers
1st Place Junior Group Website
Jack Randolph and Jackson Nguyen
Sanford Middle School
Minnesota

For the Rainbow Children of God: Desmund Tutu’s Perilous Conquest against South African Apartheid
1st Place Senior Group Website
Evan McCrackin, Justin Yang, Shoaib Jamil
Norman High School
Oklahoma

James Reese Europe: The Jazz Lieutenant Who Broke the Color Barrier in Music
2nd Place Junior Individual Website
Kaitlyn Choi
Jericho Middle School
New York

The “Unbought and Unbossed”” Shirley Chisholm: Breaking Barriers for Minorities and Women
2nd Place Junior Group Website
Lilly Smith and Sarah Ragoonanan
Folwell Arts Magnet School
Minnesota

The Military Intelligence Service: Japanese Americans Breaking Barriers to Help End the War
2nd Place Senior Group Website
Sarah Sakaihara, John Andrei Balanay, Jaelen Matsuda-Willians
Maui High School
Hawaii

An Appeal: Breaking the Barrier of Northern Resistance to Antislavery
3rd Place Junior Individual Website
Maielle Merriam
NHHS Homeschool Consortium
New Hampshire

Lovings’ Fight to Break Interracial Barriers
3rd Place Junior Group Website
Sean Mathews and Iman Pearson
Ralston Middle School
Nebraska

Gloria Richardson: Breaking Racial Barriers in Cambridge, Maryland
3rd Place Senior Group Website
Aiko Mattie and Emma McCarthy
Open World Learning Secondary
Minnesota

Executive Order 9981: Desegregating the Armed Services
US Constitution Award
Senior Individual Website
Srikar Mudili
University School of Milwaukee
Wisconsin

International Space Station
Global Peace Prize
Junior Group Website
Gabriella Grogg, Katelynn Murdock
Marlatt Elementary School
Kansas

Brahmagupta, the Jewel of Indian Mathematicians: Inventing the Idea of Nothing
History of the Physical Sciences & Technology
Junior Individual Website
Rohan Singh
Washington Junior High School
Arkansas

Maria Mitchell: Breaking Barriers to Prove the Sky Is Not the Limit for Women
History of the Physical Sciences & Technology
Senior Individual Website
Reganne Watts
Boise High School
Idaho

Storming Redoubts 9 and 10: Two Small Barriers Blocking a Large Victory
George Washington Leadership in History Prize
Junior Individual Website
Sean Owen
Floyd Dryden Middle School
Alaska

Breaking Cultural Barriers in the Classroom: Chicano Education Reform
Latino American History Prize
Senior Group Website
Herman Archibeque, Madison Satterfeld, Milo Trjillo, Olivia Chavez
Moriarty High School
New Mexico

The following six National History Day individual documentary winners received the 2019 Next Generation Angels Awards from The Better Angels Society. As part of their awards, the six student winners traveled to Washington, DC, in October 2019 for three days of tours, screenings, and special events at the Smithsonian, the Library of Congress, and the American Film Institute.



1st Place Senior Individual Documentary
Allison Bushong, Triumph of Representation and Tragedy of Repercussion: Silent Gesture of 1968
As the first place senior division winner, Allison Bushong received the Anne Harrington Award, named for the late longtime friend and colleague of Ken Burns.

Martin Luther King High School
Riverside, California
Process Paper and Bibliography

2nd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Taylor Barton, Dam! Better Call Clara!

3rd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Melinda Chen, From Miracle to Mishap: The Cutter Incident and its Impact on Modern Vaccine Safety Standards

West Windsor-Plainsboro High School South
Princeton Junction, New Jersey
Process Paper and Bibliography

1st Place Junior Individual Documentary
Sophie Elliott, Positives and Negatives: Shaping Native American Identity Through the Photography of Edward S. Curtis

2nd Place Junior Individual Documentary
Sydney Brown, By Chance: The Story of the First Code Talkers

3rd Place Junior Individual Documentary
Josef Schuller, The Bridge over Funchilin Pass: The Only Option for Retreat

Women in Revolt: The Enduring Legacy of the Newsweek Lawsuit
YouTube
Equality in History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
William An
Frank W. Springstead High School
Florida
Process Paper and Bibliography

Enterprise, Alabama: Rising From the Ashes
YouTube
History of Agriculture and Rural Life Prize
Junior Individual Documentary
Grayson Morgan
Burns Middle School
Alabama
Process Paper and Bibliography

Le Chambon-sur-Lignon: Fighting for Triumph in the Midst of Great Tragedy
YouTube
1st Place Junior Group Documentary
Dane Kassube and Thomas Gnacke
Discovery Elementary School
California
Process Paper and Bibliography

Echo of Falling Water: The Inundation of Celilo Falls
YouTube
1st Place Senior Group Documentary
Alan Zhou and Kyler Wang
Sunset High School & Lincoln High School
Oregon
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Apollo 1 Disaster: The Tragedy that Landed a Man on the Moon
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Group Documentary
Elie Musfeldt and Natalie Pujet
Southern Hills Middle School
Colorado
Process Paper and Bibliography

For I Was Dying: The Triumph and Tragedy of Ms. Eula Hall
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Group Documentary
Shelby McNeal and Tate Greene
Clayton-Bradley Academy
Tennessee
Process Paper and Bibliography

Deeds, not Words: Tragedies Suffered and Triumphs Secured by the British Suffragettes
YouTube
3rd Place Junior Group Documentary
Alizeh Hammad and Sania Hammad
Thomas Jefferson Independent Day School
Missouri
Process Paper and Bibliography

A Legacy Lost: The Mistreatment of the Chinese Through the Transcontinental Railroad
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Asian-American History Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Cameron Hojecki, Sarah Bolen, and Victoria Wei
Montville Township High School
New Jersey
Process Paper
X Marks the Spot: The Rosalind Franklin Story
YouTube
Discovery or Exploration in History Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Francisco Camacho and Riley Whitecotton
Clayton-Bradley Academy
Tennessee
Process Paper
The Yellowstone Fires of 1988: A Tragedy for the Present, but a Triumph for the Future
YouTube
History in the Federal Government Prize
Senior Group Documentary
Caleb Russell, Kameron Brough, and Rebecca Brough
Lander Middle School
Wyoming
Process Paper
The Irish Potato Famine: From Oppression to Opportunity
YouTube
Irish or Irish-American History Prize
Junior Group Documentary
Max Watchmaker and Ronan More O'Ferrall
University School of Milwaukee
Wisconsin
Process Paper

Out of the Closet and into the Medicine Cabinet: ACT UP New York's Healthcare Triumphs
1st Place Senior Individual Exhibit
Mia Porcello
Northwest Catholic High School
Connecticut

Tragedy of the Great Fire and Triumph of Skyscraper City
1st Place Senior Group Exhibit
Christy Guan and Hana Kim
Stuyvesant High School
New York
Process Paper and Bibliography

Destroy Every Closet Door: Harvey Milk
2nd Place Junior Individual Exhibit
Riya Kalra
Evergreen Middle School
Washington
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Light at the End of the Tunnel
2nd Place Junior Group Exhibit
Elizabeth Chen, Gauri Raman, and Thanushree Karunagaran
Evergreen Middle School
Washington

Black Studies Now! Philadelphia's 1967 Student Walkouts
2nd Place Senior Individual Exhibit
Taryn Flaherty
Julia R. Masterman Secondary School
Pennsylvania
Process Paper and Bibliography

The Panama Canal: A Triumph Entrenched in Tragedy
2nd Place Senior Group Exhibit
Amanda Wasserman, Emily Park, Maya Chu, Sonali Chu, and Victoria Comunale
Francis Parker School
California
Process Paper and Bibliography

Helen Keller: From Tragedy to Worldwide Triumphs
3rd Place Senior Individual Exhibit
Nolan Vondran
Har-Ber High School
Arkansas
The Real Housewives of the Lower East Side: The 1902 Kosher Meat Boycott
Immigration History Prize
Senior Individual Exhibit
Rahul Ajmera
Wheatley School
New York

The Triumph of Greed and the Tragedy of Cherokee Removal: The Fight for North Georgia Tribal Lands
Native American History Prize
Senior Individual Exhibit
Becky Dorminy
Sola Fide Home School
Georgia

Ghost Army
World War II History Prize
Senior Individual Exhibit
Madeline Christianson
Lakeridge Junior High
Utah
Process Paper and Bibliography

Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima: A Triumph Arising from Tragedy
2nd Place Junior Paper
Andrew Da
Northshore Junior High School
Washington

The My Lai Massacre: The Tragedy and Its Triumphs
3rd Place Senior Paper
Rena Liu
Farragut High School
Tennessee

The Bay View Tragedy: Wisconsin’s Fight for the Eight-Hour Workday
American Labor History Prize
Junior Paper
Anna Pearce
Richfield Middle School
Wisconsin

Stealth and Secrecy: The Culper Spy Ring’s Triumph over the Tragedy of Betrayal
George Washington Leadership in History Prize
Junior Paper
Andi Bradsher
Oak Tree Academy
North Carolina

Loving v. Virginia: The Stepping Stone for Equality in America
YouTube
1st Place Junior Individual Performance
Addie Skillman
Elkridge Landing Middle School
Maryland

Katherine Johnson: A Quiet Triumph in a White Man's World
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Group Performance
Nasreen Shakur and Sofia Boyd
Birchwood School of Hawken
Ohio

A Blessing or a Curse? The Triumph and Tragedy of Thalidomide
YouTube
3rd Place Senior Individual Performance
Aubrey Chrisenbery
Joplin High School
Missouri

The Triumphs and Tragedies of Operation Iceberg
YouTube
3rd Place Senior Group Performance
Aiden Anzaldua, Andrea Urbina, Joel Santivanez, Mathew Montiel, and Monserrat Sandoval-Malherbe
Veterans Memorial Early College High School
Texas

Mistrust and Misunderstanding: A Deadly Clash at Wounded Knee Creek
YouTube
Native American History Prize
Junior Individual Performance
Elizabeth Wortmann
St. Rose of Lima
Nebraska

The Gwangju Uprising: Triumphs from Tragedy
1st Place Junior Individual Website
Leslie Kim
Ames Middle School
Iowa

After the Dust Settles: Saving the Soil
1st Place Junior Group Website
Gavin Johnson, Grahm Williams, Lawson Veit, Mason Harris, and Wyatt Coffey
Morrison Middle School
Oklahoma

Stomaching America: Tragedies and Triumphs of "The Jungle"
1st Place Senior Individual Website
Abigail Peterson
North Lakes Academy
Minnesota

Radium Girls: From Jaw-Dropping Tragedy to Glowing Triumph
1st Place Senior Group Website
Elias Rice-Bensch, Keona Wallen, Sean Choudhry, and Zia Rice-Bensch
Accelerated Learning Laboratory
Arizona

Crime of the Century: The Tragic Kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh Jr.
2nd Place Junior Individual Website
Kaitlyn Choi
Jericho Middle School
New York

Czechoslovakia 1938: Triumph and Tragedy in a Final Stride for Peace
2nd Place Junior Group Website
Ethan Chen, Ramon Jiang, and Zhongwen Zhang
Sierra Vista Middle School
California

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: The Tragedy that Struck Alaska
2nd Place Senior Individual Website
Maggie Eid
Winchester High School
Massachusetts

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire: Learning to Triumph over Tragedy
2nd Place Senior Group Website
Abigail Hyer and Jameson Margetts
Chadron Senior High School
Nebraska

Selma: How the Media Transformed a Tragedy into a Triumph for Voting Rights
3rd Place Junior Individual Website
Van Weinmann
Birchwood School Of Hawken
Ohio

Loving v. Virginia: Love Triumphs over Virginia's Tragic Anti-Miscegenation Laws
3rd Place Junior Group Website
Andrea Koehler and Tatum Buckley
Bettendorf Middle School
Iowa

Tragedy in a Texas Town: The Texas City Disaster of 1947
3rd Place Senior Group Website
Isaac Veloz, John Castaneda, Nicolas Gonzales, and Soraida Sosa
Nimitz High School
Texas

The Art of Confusion: The Triumph of Dazzle Camouflage after Tragedy
Captain Ken Coskey Naval History Prize
Junior Group Website
Ben Kvale and Ella Ratliff
Edison Middle School
South Dakota

Quantrill's Raid: The Destruction and Rebuilding of Lawrence, Kansas
Civil War History Prize
Senior Group Website
Samantha Turner and Trevor Arellano
Lawrence High School
Kansas

Finding Honor in Defeat: The Demilitarization of Japan
Global Peace Prize
Senior Group Website
Grace Philippon and Sam Skinner
Central High School
Minnesota

The Young Lords Organization of Chicago
Latino-American History Prize
Junior Group Website
Ada Liberzon, Nikita Agrawal, Stella Rhodes, Vanessa Lowder and Victoria Velazquez
Whitney Young Academic Center
Illinois

The Bracero Program
Latino-American History Prize
Senior Individual Website
Aamilah Chowdhury
Uplift Summit International High School
Texas

Jackie Robinson: Stealing Bases and Gaining Equality Among the Races
Lee Allen History of Baseball Prize
Junior Group Website
Frederic Ward and William Ward
St. Patrick Catholic School
Virginia

The Triumphs of Alexander Hamilton
U.S. Constitution Prize
Junior Group Website
Elias Johnson and Louis Ke
Walnut Hills High School
Ohio

Was the Triumph Worth the Tragedy? The Battle of Saipan
U.S. Marine Corps History Prize
Senior Individual Website
Nikhil Manandhar
Lorton Station Elementary
Virginia

The Pig War: Confrontation, Escalation, Arbitration
YouTube
Global Peace Prize
Junior Group Documentary
Kyler Wang and Alan Zhou
Stoller Middle School
Oregon
Process Paper and Bibliography

A Splash in History: The Conflict and Compromise of the Indus Waters Treaty
YouTube
1st Place Junior Individual Documentary
Sanjay Kasi
Felix Festa Character Middle School
New York
Process Paper and Bibliography

On the Front Lines of Faith: Chaplains' Reconciliation of Conflicting Roles in the Vietnam War
YouTube
1st Place Senior Individual Documentary
Jake Blum
Howard High School
Maryland
Process Paper and Bibliography

Berkeley on Strike: The Battle for Ethnic Studies
YouTube
1st Place Senior Group Documentary
Cleo Chaplin and Adam Nussbaum
Francis Parker High School
California
Process Paper and Bibliography

From Conflict to Compromise: How a Negotiator from Maine Brought Peace to Northern Ireland
YouTube
1st Place Junior Group Documentary
Don Strawbridge and Matthew Gilbert
Greely Middle School
Maine
Process Paper and Bibliography

Sailing Away From the Turbulent Waters of Vietnam: The Overflowing Waves of Boat People
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Individual Documentary
Vy Nguyen
Derby North Middle School
Kansas
Process Paper and Bibliography

Books, Bombs, and Barricades: The Kanawha County Textbook War and West Virginia’s Role in the Rise of Educational Conservatism
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Brennan Lawless
Shady Spring High School
West Virginia
Process Paper
Bibliography

Atlanta: “The City Too Busy to Hate”: the Socioeconomic Compromise that Stunned the South
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Group Documentary
Malik Hubbard and Ke’Von Singleton
Palmetto Scholars Academy
South Carolina
Process Paper and Bibliography

Mississippi Freedom Summer: Compromising Safety in the Midst of Conflict
YouTube
3rd Place Junior Group Documentary
Joanna Chen and Chu-Yin Weng
Jericho Middle School
New York
Process Paper and Bibliography

Chief Washakie: Saving the Shoshone Tribe Through the Creation of the Wind River Reservation
YouTube
3rd Place Senior Group Documentary
Kameron Brough, Jalynne Brough, and Caleb Russell
Lander Middle School
Wyoming
Process Paper and Bibliography

Temporary Truces: How America’s Handling of the Barbary Bullies Molded the U.S. Navy
YouTube
Captain Ken Coskey Naval History Prize
Junior Individual Documentary
Andrew Karafa
Eastern Middle School
Michigan
Process Paper and Bibliography

Defining Korea: How Conflict and Compromise Shaped a Nation
YouTube
United States Marine Corps History Prize
Junior Individual Documentary
Sada Schumann
Sacajawea High School
Montana
Bibliography
Process Paper

The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Reducing Conflict Through Compromise and Collaboration in Space
Vimeo
Discovery or Exploration in History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Mason Kinsey
Clovis West High School
California
Bibliography and Process Paper

Operation Pedro Pan: An Exodus for Hope
YouTube
Latino American History Prize
Senior Individual Documentary
Lucas Mooney
Homeschool
West Virginia
Bibliography
Process Paper

Arusha Accords: A Genocidal Compromise
Image 2
Image 3
1st Place Senior Group Exhibit
Sofia Ricciarini, Grace Sperber, Emily Perry, Charlotte Dotson, and Sabrina Mellinghoff
New York
Process Paper
Process Paper

Frick’s Inability to Compromise:The Homestead Strike of 1892
3rd Place Junior Group Exhibit
Amelia D’Addieco, Sophia Wilson, and Robyn Strazisar
Peters Township Middle School
Pennsylvania
Process Paper
Bibliography

The Chamizal Dispute: A Century of Conflict
3rd Place Senior Group Exhibit
Hector Torres, Roland Reyes, Isaiah Thomas, Abigail Tack, and Raymundo Barrera
Nimitz High School
Texas
Process Paper and Bibliography

17 Years: Developing the United States Coinage System
1st Place Junior Paper
Kellen Hoard
Kamiakin Middle School
Washington

Galileo Galilei: A Conflict of Faiths
History of the Physical Sciences & Technology Prize
Senior Paper
Ali Jones
Mt. Spokane High School
Washington

Protecting the Past: The Fight to Save America’s Archaeological Resources
Native American History Prize
Senior Paper
Grant Bruner
Sycamore High School
Ohio

A Great Compromise: The Sherman Plan Saves the Constitutional Convention of 1787
George Washington Leadership in History Prize
Junior Paper
Lucy Phelan
Cyber Village Academy
Minnesota

When Police Fail to Protect: Remembering the Tulsa Riot of 1921
African American History Prize
Junior Paper
Maya Plimack
Julia R. Masterman Secondary School
Pennsylvania

Tradition v. Toleration: An Epic Battle for Religious Freedom in Virginia
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Individual Performance
Riley Sutherland
Liberty North High School
Missouri

Territorial Diplomacy: Seo Hui’s Compromise and Demands for the Goryeo Dynasty
YouTube
1st Place Senior Group Performance
Jungmin Bae, Andrew Chanho Kim, Sunyoung Hwang, JinYoung Kim, and Do Hyun Choi
Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies
South Korea
Process Paper and Bibliography

Pleading Compromise to Save Jewish Children During the Conflict of the Holocaust
YouTube
3rd Place Junior Group Performance
Tara Shealy, Emerson Kidd-Benthall, and Riley Whitecotton
Clayton-Bradley Academy
Tennessee
Process Paper and Bibliography

Conflict from Compromise: The Anglo-Irish Treaty
YouTube
1st Place Junior Individual Performance
Thomas McKenna
McKenna Homeschool
Virginia
Process Paper
Bibliography

”From Sea to Shining Sea”: The Conflict Over the Fort Laramie Treaties That Compromised American Values
YouTube
Native American History Prize
Junior Group Performance
Andre Gabriel Mead, Brooks Barry, Liv Bobby, and Sebastian Zuba
Pequot Homeschool
Connecticut
Process Paper
Bibliography

Great Lakes Great Legacy?: The Compromise of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
1st Place Junior Group Website
Sofia Fish and Azalea Rohr
Sanford Middle School
Minnesota

A Duty to Starve: The Minnesota Starvation Experiment
1st Place Junior Individual Website
Ella Hoch Robinson
Sanford Middle School
Minnesota

A Little Ball Moved the Big Ball
2nd Place Senior Individual Website
Jiayong Lu
American Heritage/Plantation
Florida

The Iran Hostage Crisis: When Compromise Fails
1st Place Senior Individual Website
Laura Mills
Kent Place School
New Jersey

”By winter we will know all.”: The Prague Spring and Conflict over Control
1st Place Senior Group Website
Lily Ting, Tucker Apgar, and Sean Li
Hamilton-Wenham Regional High School
Massachusetts

Women in War: The Battle for the Inclusion of American Women in the Army and the WAAC Compromise
2nd Place Senior Group Website
Katie Nguyen and Anindita Rajamani
Highland Park Senior High School
Minnesota

Opening the Door for Compromise: Davis v. Bandemer and the Conflict over Partisan Gerrymandering
2nd Place Place Junior Individual Website
Lilian Jochmann
University School Of Milwaukee
Wisconsin

The Indian Removal Act: Conflict, Compromise, and Displacement of the Five Civilized Tribes
2nd Place Junior Group Website
Sylvie Devore and Haley Rutan
Dresden Elementary School
Ohio

America’s Deadliest Prison Uprising: The Failed Compromise at Attica
3rd Place Junior Individual Website
Catalina Kerwin
Girls Athletic Leadership School
Colorado

The FHA’s Effect on Black Housing: The Legalization of Segregation in American Neighborhoods
3rd Place Junior Group Website
Lydia Yeh, Angelica Frude, and Paris Ye
Eastern Middle School
Maryland

Quotas and Quibbles: A Series of Restrictive Immigration Acts of the early 20th century
Immigration History Prize
Senior Group Website
Angela Wang and Julia Corfman
Poolesville High
Maryland

The Easter Rising: The Transformation of a Failed Rebellion to a Revolutionary Compromise
Irish or Irish-American History Prize
Junior Group Website
Jason Kusnowo and Saahas Parise
J. William Fulbright Junior High School
Arkansas

The 1971 FBI Burglary: Taking A Stand Against Illegal Government Surveillance
YouTube
3rd Place Junior Individual Documentary
August Butterworth
Chaska Middle School East
Minnesota
Process Paper
Annotated Bibliography

The Tuskegee Airmen: Courage Knows No Color
YouTube
1st Place Junior Group Documentary
Ananya Nandula, Ananya Ganapathi, and Layasri Ranjith
School: Evergreen Middle School
Washington

The Statement that Revealed the Truth: Josiah DuBois, an American Holocaust Hero
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Group Documentary
Sam Bitman, Shayna Herzfeld, Gabby O'Brien, and Asha Mohapatra
School: Rosa International Middle School
New Jersey
Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography

Planting Seeds to End World Hunger: Norman Borlaug's Fight Against Famine
YouTube
3rd Place Junior Group Documentary
Audrey Faricy, Sebastian Helgeson, and Sruthi Subramanian
Parkview Center School
Minnesota
Annotated Bibliography
Process Paper

Schoolhouse Speech: Taking a Stand in Tinker v. Des Moines
YouTube
1st Place Senior Individual Documentary
Ian Kavanaugh
Mansfield High School
Massachusetts
Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography

A Ray of Hope
You Tube
2nd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Mia Kawamitsu
Abraham Lincoln High School
Iowa
Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography

Standing with the Voiceless: The Life and Legacy of Archbishop Oscar Romero
You Tube
1st Place Senior Group Documentary
Venkata Panabakam, Sidra Nadeem, and Denise Martinez
Rogers New Technology High School
Arkansas

Beyond the Shadow of Agent Orange: Veterans Stand for Justice
You Tube
3rd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Jake Blum
Howard High School
Maryland
Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography

“LAW. NOT WAR.” Benjamin Ferencz’s Lifelong Stand for Peace Through Justice
1st Place Senior Group Exhibit
Creed King and Katherine Powell
Leon High School
Florida
Process Paper

A Force of Nature": Wangari Maathai Fights for the Environment and the People
3rd Place Senior Group Exhibit
Sara Skwaryk, Rebecca Wahlenmayer, and Elizabeth Wahlenmayer
Girard High School
Pennsylvania
Annotated Bibliography
Process Paper

Margaret Sanger, Taking a Stand for Birth Control
1st Place Junior Paper
Ingrid Mundt
Capitol Hill Magnet School
Minnesota

Le Chambon Sur Lignon: Secretly Taking a Stand to Save Lives During the Holocaust through a Conspiracy of Goodness
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Individual Performance
Skylar Holland
Wayne School of Engineering Middle School
North Carolina
Annotated Bibliography
Process Paper

Beyond the Boundaries of Barbed Wire: Japanese Americans in a Stand for Racial Justice
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Individual Performance
Faith Nishimura
Claremont High School
California
Process Paper
Annotated Bibliography

Solidarity: The Polish People Take a Stand for Freedom
YouTube
1st Place Senior Group Performance
Sydney Fox, Allison Hodge, and Matthew Clark
Buchanan High School
California

The Sun Rises: Sakamoto Ryoma's Stand for Modernization in Retrospect to the Past, Present, and Future
YouTube
3rd Place Senior Group Performance
Nicole Zhong, Kevin Jin, Charlie Kong, and Qingyun Wang
Concordia International School
China
Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography

Tinker v. Des Moines: The Silent Stand
1st Place Junior Individual Website
Saba Shakir
New Vistas Center for Education
Arizona

Standing Up for the Land: Gaylord Nelson, the Ojibwe, and the Apostle Islands
3rd Place Junior Individual Website
Aidan Dresang
School: Eagle School of Madison
Wisconsin

Calling the Shots: Taking a Stand Against the Speckled Monster
1st Place Junior Group Website
Sophie Mullaney and Alexander Szymanski
Midtown International School
Georgia

Mother Jones: Marching with the Mill Children
1st Place Senior Group Website
Hannah Doyle, Zachary Matson
Hanford High and Delta High
Washington
Annotated Bibliography
Process Paper

When Ballet Came to America
YouTube
1st Place Junior Group Documentary
Genevieve Haskins and Eleanor McCoy
Georgia
Process Paper

The Munich Agreement: Exploring Peace, Encountering False Promises, and Exchanging Czechoslovakia for "Peace for our Time"
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Group Documentary
Lauren Stoneman and Siena Perna
Wisconsin
Process Paper

Introducing Americans to America
YouTube
1st Place Senior Group Documentary
Sydney Dye and Caroline Murphy
North Carolina
Process Paper | Bibliography

Reconstructing Korea's Crippled Economy: Korean Miners and Nurses in Germany
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Group Documentary
Miriam Son, James Pierog, Jeanie Lee, and Sunny Chung Lee
Korea
Process Paper

The Awakening of the Sleeping Giant: How Sino-American Rapprochement Triggered China's Meteoric Rise and What It Means Today
YouTube
1st Place Junior Individual Documentary
Bobby Aiyer
Washington
Process Paper

Nikola Tesla : Exploring an Electrical Era
YouTube
2nd Place Junior Individual Documentary
Akshaya Kumar
Iowa
Process Paper

The Journey of Sugar: Neither Short nor Sweet
YouTube
1st Place Senior Individual Documentary
Aditya Ailiani
Wisconsin
Process Paper | Bibliography

Silence Kills: Temoignage and the Dilemma of Humanitarian Aid
YouTube
2nd Place Senior Individual Documentary
Adam Nussbaum
California
Process Paper

The Apollo-Soyuz Mission: Launching a Unified Exchange
1st Place Junior Group Exhibit
Trinity Yeo, Mehek Jain, Callie Elms, and Tara Ampolini
Singapore
Process Paper | Bibliography

An Old Enemy Becomes New - World War I's Deadliest Killer
2nd Place Junior Group Exhibit
Abeedah Hassan and Spandana Amirneni
Ohio
Process Paper

Fifteen Cents to See the Infants on Display
1st Place Senior Group Exhibit
Gabrielle Hines and Jennifer Gilby
Florida
Process Paper


Tuskegee Airmen

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Tuskegee Airmen, black servicemen of the U.S. Army Air Forces who trained at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama during World War II. They constituted the first African American flying unit in the U.S. military.

In January 1941 the War Department formed the all-black 99th Pursuit Squadron of the U.S. Army Air Corps (later the U.S. Army Air Forces), to be trained using single-engine planes at the segregated Tuskegee Army Air Field at Tuskegee, Alabama. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the black press, and others had been lobbying hard for the government to allow African Americans to become military pilots. However, neither the NAACP nor the most-involved black newspapers approved the solution of creating separate black units they believed that approach simply perpetuated segregation and discrimination. Nevertheless, largely at the behest of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, a separate unit was created. The Tuskegee base opened on July 19, and the first class graduated the following March. Lieut. Col. Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr., became the squadron’s commander.

The Tuskegee Airmen received further training in French Morocco before their first mission, on June 2, 1943, a strafing attack on Pantelleria Island, an Italian island in the Mediterranean Sea. Later that year the army activated three more squadrons that, joined in 1944 by the 99th, constituted the 332nd Fighter Group. It fought in the European theatre and was noted as one of the Army Air Forces’ most successful and most-decorated escort groups.

The Tuskegee Air Field program expanded to train pilots and crew to operate two-engine B-25 medium bombers. These men became part of the second black flying group, the 477th Bombardment Group. Shortages of crew members, technicians, and equipment troubled the 477th, and World War II ended before it could be deployed overseas.

Altogether, 992 pilots graduated from the Tuskegee Air Field courses, and they flew 1,578 missions and 15,533 sorties, destroyed 261 enemy aircraft, and won more than 850 medals.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


Mary Mallory / Hollywood Heights: Ravished Armenia and the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide


A still from “Auction of Souls,” in the Washington Times.

Note: This is an encore post from 2015.

F or more than 120 years, Armenians have seen slaughter and death at the hands of the Ottoman Empire and the Turks. In 1894, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II ordered the first massacre and harassment of the Armenian population, with more than 300,000 people killed over three years. 30,000 Armenians were killed in 1909 when Turks in Cilicila revolted against Armenian democratization efforts. In 1915, the wholesale slaughter of Armenians began as a result of World War I, when Armenia became separated from the Allied Forces which supported it when Turkey sided with Germany. As Tony Slide reveals in his book, “Ravished Armenia and the Story of Aurora Mardiganian,” Russia invaded Turkey and British and French forces attacked Constantinople, precipitating disaster. On April 23-24, 1915, Turkish police began rounding up 800 leading Armenians in Constantinople, exiling them, and began widespread extermination of the Armenian population on April 24. This year marks the Centennial of the Twentieth Century’s first massive genocide, in which more than one million Armenians were slaughtered, half of the population at the time.

One young Christian girl, Arshalouys Mardigian “Aurora Mardiganian,” suffered horrific experiences during the genocide but survived and escaped to America. Her story of a young girl suffering abuses and ravages came to stand for that of Armenia itself when her book, “Ravished Armenia,” was released in 1918. Mardiganian herself starred later that year in a movie adaptation called “Ravished Armenia,” later changed to “Auction of Souls.” In many ways, Mardiganian represents her ravished homeland, as she was exploited and abused by the very individuals who were supposed to provide help, becoming a bit player in her own story. Her story helped publicize the widespread genocide and diaspora of her people, vividly personified in what little remains of the powerful film.


Watch the video: The Silent Service in World War II Audiobook by Edward Monroe-Jones, Michael Green (December 2021).