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Subject Index: Naval Warfare

Subject Index: Naval Warfare

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Wars & Treaties

Anglo-Dutch War, First (1652-1654)
Anglo-Dutch War, Second (1665-1667)
Anglo-Dutch War, Third (1672-1674)
Falklands War, 1982


Abydos, battle of, 322 B.C.
Aegates Islands, battle of the, 241 BC
Aerial, the evacuation from north western France, 15-25 June 2008
Altmark incident, 16 February 1940
Amorgos, battle of, July 322 B.C.
Archangel, raid on, 6-7 July 1701
Bergen, battle of, 2/12 August 1665
Bismarck Sea, battle of the, 2-4 March 1943
Bornholm, battle of, 30 May 1563
Caledon class light cruisers
Cape Ecnomus, battle of, 256 BC
Cape Engano, battle of, 25 October 1944
Cape Esperance, 11-12 October 1942
Cape Hermaeum, battle of, 255 BC
Cape Saint George, battle of, 25 November 1943
Chios, battle of, of 201 B.C.
Coat, Operation, 15-20 November 1940
Collar, Operation, 24-30 November 1940
Constitution vs Guerrière
Constitution vs Java
Convoy HX237, attack on, 7-14 May 1943
Convoy HX239, attack on, 22-25 May 1943
Convoy ONS5, attack on, 28 April-6 May 1943
Convoy SC129, attack on, 12-14 May 1943
Convoy SC130, attack on, 18-25 May 1943
Copenhagen, battle of, 2 April 1801: Main Article
Copenhagen, battle of: The British Ships
Copenhagen, battle of: The Danish Ships
Copenhagen, battle of: Nelson's first letter to the Crown Prince
Copenhagen, battle of: Nelson's second letter to the Crown Prince
Coral Sea, battle of the, 3-8 May 1942
Coronel, battle of, 1 November 1914
Corycus, battle of, 191 B.C.
Cos, battle of, 258 BC
Cycle, Operation, the evacuation from Havre, 10-13 June 1940
Cynoscephalea, battle of, 197 B.C.
Dogger Bank, naval battle of, 24 January 1915
Downs, battle of the (Naval battle), 21 October 1639
Dungeness, battle of, 30 November 1652
Dunkirk, evacuation from, 27 May-4 June 1940 (Operation Dynamo)
Elba, battle of, 28 August 1652
Empress Augusta Bay, battle of, 2 November 1943
Eurymedon, battle of, 190 B.C.
Falklands, battle of the, 8 December 1914
Femern, battle of, 24 April 1715
Finisterre, Calder's battle off,22 July 1805
Fladstrand, battle of, 11 May 1712
Fladstrand, action off, 10 April 1717
Formosa, battle off, 12-16 October 1944
Four Days' Battle, 1-4 June 1666
Gabbard, the/ Nieuwpoort, battle of, 2-3 June 1653
Gangut, battle of, 6 August 1714 NS
Goodwin Sands, battle of, 19 May 1652
Gotland, battle of, 11 September 1563
Gotland-Öland, battle of, 30-31 May 1564
Gottska Sandö, battle of, 4 June 1719
Gravelines, battle of, 13 July 1558
Gravelines, battle of, 29 July 1588
Guadalcanal, naval battle of, 13-15 November 1942
Hampton Roads, 8-9 March 1862
Hartlepool Raid, 16 December 1914
Hats, Operation, 30 August-5 September 1940
'Holmes's Bonfire', 10 August 1666
Hornet vs Peacock, 24 February 1813
Hornet vs Penguin, 23 March 1815
Hurry, Operation, 1-4 August 1940
I-Go/ Operation 'I', 7-16 April 1943
Jutland, naval battle of, 31 May-1 June 1916
Kentish Knock, battle of, 28 September 1652
Køge Bay, battle of, 4 October 1710
Kolombangara, battle of, 13 July 1943
Kula Gulf, action in, 6 March 1943
Kula Gulf, battle of, 6 July 1943
Lade, battle of, 201 BC
Lagos Bay, 18 August 1759 (Portugal)
Leghorn, battle of, 4 March 1653
Leyte Gulf, battle of, 23-26 October 1944
Lindesnaes, action off, 26-27 June 1714
Lipera Islands, battle of (260 B.C.)
Lowestoft, battle of, 3 June 1665 (O.S.)
Lowestoft Raid of 25 April 1916
Madras raid, 22 September 1914
Magnesia, battle of, 190 B.C.
Martinique, battle of 25 June 1667
Medway, Dutch raid on, 19-24 June 1667
MG1, Operation, 19-27 March 1942
Midway, battle of, June 1942 (Pacific Ocean)
Midway, battle of, June 1942, longer article
Mylae, battle of, 260 BC
Myonnesus, battle of, 190 B.C.
Narvik, first battle of, 10 April 1940
Narvik, second battle of, 13 April 1940
Negapatam, battle of, 6 July 1746
Nevis, battle of, 19 or 20 May 1667
Nile, battle of the, 1 August 1798
Öländ, battle of, 12-13 August 1564
Penang Raid, 28 October 1914
Philippine Sea, battle of , 19-20 June 1944
Plymouth, action off, 16 August 1652
Portland, battle of, 18-20 February 1653
River Plate, battle of the, 13 December 1939
Quiberon Bay, battle of, 20 November 1759 (France)
Rennell Island, battle of, 29-30 January 1943
Reval, action off, 29 July 1714
St. James's Day Battle (or North Foreland or Two Day's Battle), 25-26 July/ 4-5 August 1666
Salamis (Cyprus), battle of, 306 BC
Samar, battle of, 25 October 1944
Santa Cruz Islands, 26 October 1942
Scarborough Raid, 16 December 1914
Scheveningen, battle of, 31 July 1653
Schooneveld, first battle of the, 28 May/ 7 June 1673
Schooneveld, second battle of the, 4/14 June 1673
Sibuyan Sea, battle of the, 23-24 October 1944
Sirte, first battle of, 17 December 1941
Sirte, second battle of, 22 March 1942
Sluys. battle of, 24 July 1340
Solebay, battle of, 7 June 1672
Spartivento (Sardinia), action off Cape, 27 November 1940
Squawk, Operation, 31 August-1 September 1940
Surigao Strait, 25 October 1944
Tassafaronga, battle of, 30 November 1942
Texel, battle of, 11/ 21 August 1673 (or Kijkduin)
Toulon, naval battle of, 11 February 1744 (France)
Trafalgar, battle of, 21 October 1805
Trafalgar, campaign of, 1805
United States vs Macedonian
Vella Gulf, battle of, 6 August 1943
Warnemünde, action off, 12 July 1564
Whitby Raid, 16 December 1914
Wilfred, Operation, 1940
Yorkshire Coast Raid, 15-16 December 1914


Allemand, Zacharie Jacques Théodore, 1762-1826
Beatty, David, 1871-1936, British Admiral
Boscawen, Edward, admiral, 1711-1761
Burney, Sir Cecil, 1858-1929, British Admiral
Cleitus, d.318, Macedonian Admiral
Collingwood, Cuthbert, first baron Collingwood (1750-1810)
Cork and Orrery, William Boyle, 12th Earl of, 1873-1967
Cradock, Sir Christopher “Kit”, 1862-1914
Cunningham, Admiral Sir Andrew, 1883 - 1963
Cunningham, Admiral Sir John, 1885-1962
Fletcher, Frank Jack 'Black Jack', 1885-1973
Ghormley, Vice-Admiral Robert Lee, 1883-1958
Goodenough, Sir William Edmund, 1867-1945, British Admiral
Gough-Calthorpe, Sir Somerset Arthur, 1864-1937, British Admiral
Halsey Jr, William Frederick "Bull", 1882-1959
Hawke, Edward, first Baron Hawke, admiral of the fleet (1705-1781)
Jellicoe, John R., 1859-1935, British Admiral
Kelly, Sir John D., 1871-1936, British Admiral
Kinkaid, Admiral Thomas, 1888-1972
Kurita, Vice Admiral Takeo, 1889-1977
Mathews, Thomas, Admiral (1676-1751)
Mitscher, Admiral Marc, 1887-1947
Nelson, Horatio (1758-1805), Part 1: Early life
Nelson, Horatio (1758-1805), Part 2: The Nile to Copenhagen
Nelson, Horatio (1758-1805), Part 3: 1803 to Trafalgar
Oldendorf, Rear Admiral Jessie, 1887-1972
Ozawa, Vice Admiral Jisaburo, 1886-1966
Pound, Admiral Sir Dudley, 1877-1943
Ramsay, Sir Bertram Home (1883–1945)
Somerville, Admiral Sir James (1882-1949)
Spee, Maximilian Reichsgraf von, 1861-1914, German Admiral
Sprague, Admiral Clifton A.F. 'Ziggy', 1896-1955
Sprague, Admiral Thomas Lamison, 1894-1972
Spruance, Raymond Ames, 1886-1969
Toyoda, Admiral Soemu, 1885-1957
Wake-Walker, Sir William Frederic (1888–1945)


Flag, Flying or Raising
Littoral Warfare
Superfiring turrets

Subject Index: Naval Warfare - History

NHC is the U.S. Naval War College's institutional archives and the repository for manuscripts, oral histories, special collections, and rare books relating to the history of the College, naval warfare, and the navies in Narrangansett Bay. Discover materials in NHC's collections by searching finding aids with keywords, names, or subjects. Digital versions of documents or images may be available for download, but in most instances you must make an appointment to view these non-circulating collections in the NHC's Reading Room. For more information on how to use this site, please visit our FAQ.

Mahan Hall, home to NHC at the Naval War College, is temporarily closed to undergo a comprehensive renovation. To accommodate the extensive work involved, all archival collections have been relocated to an off-site storage facility and will remain off-site for the duration of the project, which is expected to be completed by the end of 2023. During this time, the NHC Archives are unavailable for research, digitization services are suspended, and there is no access to the building.

Although the physical collections are inaccessible during renovation, we encourage you to continue to use this website to discover digital versions of documents and images from the collection.

History (HHS)

The mission of the History Department is to produce graduates who possess a fundamental understanding of and proficiency in the academic discipline of history. The major provides an opportunity to examine the evolution of past civilizations and to learn about their achievements, institutions, and cultural values. History majors learn to study ideas critically, to sift through a variety of historical evidence, and to draw conclusions about different societies and events in a clear and concise way. By understanding the complexity of historical events, students become more aware of the contemporary political, social, cultural and military issues that are important to our own society.

The goals of the major include proficiency in historical methods, writing and analysis awareness of historical context, causation and culture understanding of the trends, forces, and individuals that shaped the past as well as the historical roots of contemporary affairs appreciation of the diversity of the human experience across time and place and understanding of the importance of history to the profession of arms. The major consists of ten courses beyond the three history courses in the core. These include two seminars: an introductory methodology seminar and a first-class capstone historiography seminar. Majors select upper-division courses from the following fields:

  • American history
  • European history
  • Regional history
  • Naval and military history
  • Thematic history

In order to complete the distribution requirement for graduation, students must select eight courses in four of the five fields. In addition, all history majors are required to complete four semesters of a foreign language and two humanities electives in fields other than history.

The honors program in history offers high-performing students the opportunity to pursue a more challenging curriculum and earn a designated honors degree. Students who meet the CQPR requirement for entry are invited to apply for admission to the program at the beginning of the fall semester of the 3/C year. Those who are accepted into the program follow the normal history matrix except that they will take two seminars in lieu of two upper-level electives. They will also choose a faculty member to be an adviser for their senior thesis: a 30-page research paper. All successful theses are bound and placed in Nimitz Library.


The history major at the United States Naval Academy prepares midshipmen to serve in all Navy warfare communities and the Marine Corps. The major prepares midshipmen to enter a wide variety of graduate programs. The combination of analytical skills and writing ability along with the requirement in technical core courses makes USNA History majors both desirable and successful in graduate programs of all kinds. Graduate work in history is an obvious possibility, but USNA history majors have been successful in law school, M.B.A. programs, and in other graduate programs, such as public policy, public administration, and national security.

Several summer internship opportunities are available to History majors. Qualified majors are eligible for the Voluntary Graduate Education Program while they are still at the Naval Academy.

Considerations for those who might be interested in this major

The history major requires a significant amount of reading, writing, and library research. Computer literacy is also important, as the computer has become a major tool for historical research. To succeed in the major, a student must be willing to develop to the fullest his or her analytical reading and writing skills, and to master historical research methods.

Adriatic Guerrilla ↑

After the “checkmate” both sides changed strategy. The Austrians, with the help of the German navy, concentrated their efforts on submarine operations. Meanwhile, the Italians partially took up Revel’s strategy of naval guerrilla.

On 9 April 1916, the “Inspectorate for Submarine Weapons and Naval Aviation” was established: up to the war’s end, thirty-three new submarines were put in service and eight were lost. Submarines represented 4.9 percent of all Regia Marina activity during the conflict, but they did not sink any significant targets because of lack of training and their faulty technology. Naval aviation was also expanded and 526 seaplanes and ninety-two aircraft were in service by November 1918. During the conflict, Italian naval aircraft flew 17,050 missions, and losses amounted to 114 planes and 106 men.

In October 1915, Revel was relieved from the naval staff because of conflicts with Amedeo di Savoia and moved to Venice’s naval base. There, with the support of some young officers, he started the development of MAS (anti-submarine motorboats). The first MAS operation (6-7 June 1916) was conducted against Durres harbor, where a small steamship was sunk, showing how the new weapon was capable, due to its high speed and small dimensions, to strike effectively within enemy bases during the night.

However, until the end of 1916, the Regia Marina was in a stalemate and two more battleships were lost: the dreadnought Leonardo da Vinci was sabotaged by enemy agents (2 August 1916) and the pre-dreadnought Regina Margherita sunk after striking a mine on 11 December. The lack of success led to Revel’s reappointment as chief of staff and his designation as fleet commander, replacing Amedeo di Savoia on 7 February 1917.

The Austrians also tried to react to the stalemate, by sending their best light forces to attempt the breakthrough of Otranto straits. The following battle (14-15 May 1917) was an Austrian tactical success but the Habsburg naval forces were repulsed by the intervention of a larger Italian-British squadron. The battle outcome demonstrated to the Austrians that they could not breach the blockade and discouraged further surface operation of their fleet in the southern Adriatic.

In the following year, the Regia Marina struck a series of decisive blows against the enemy fleet: on 10 December 1917, the pre-dreadnought Wien was sunk, during a MAS incursion against Trieste, and on 10 June 1918, the dreadnought Szent Istvan was also torpedoed by MAS boats. Finally, on 1 November 1918, two Italian frogmen, employing an experimental man-guided torpedo designed by themselves, destroyed the dreadnought Viribus Unitis inside Pola’s naval base.


Dahlgren was established in the spring of 1918 as a Naval Proving Ground. Its recorded first work, the firing of a 7-inch (178-millimetre)/45 caliber tractor-mounted gun, occurred on 16 October 1918, which is recognized as the official founding date. The proving ground was named Dahlgren in honor of Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren, a Civil War Navy commander, who is the acknowledged "father of modern naval ordnance."

Prior to 1918, the Navy operated a proving ground at Indian Head, Maryland, but it became inadequate as advances in gun designs and ordnance made its range obsolete. During World War I, a range of 90,000 yards (82,000 m) was sought by the Navy to prove its new battleship guns. The range was required to be over water but inside the territorial waters of the United States. The area from Machodoc Creek to Point Lookout on the Potomac River was selected because of its relative straight lines and accessibility. The climate and relative calm of the river were also factors as the Navy sought an ice and rapids free testing area. At the time of Dahlgren's establishment, the area was extremely remote and relatively unpopulated. Thus, to recruit and retain the highly specialized work force required, the Navy promised to supply housing, food and medical services, schools, recreation, and other socially needed infrastructure.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Dahlgren was involved in testing bombsights, including the Norden bombsight, for the Navy's fledgling air forces. But, until World War II, much of the principal work at Dahlgren surrounded the proofing and testing of every major gun in the Navy's arsenal. Most of the work was done at the Main Range Gun Line, which faces down the Potomac River.

During the World War II years, Dahlgren became involved with new computational devices (computers) because of its ordnance requirements. Ground-breaking early computers were sent to Dahlgren to help with ballistic work and other directives, including the Aiken Relay Calculator and the Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC). The computer and ordnance work going on attracted a number of brilliant young scientists and engineers to the area during the war, and some were tapped to help with the ongoing Manhattan Project and the development of the atomic bomb. Two such people include Dr. Norris E. Bradbury, who later became the Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Deak Parsons, the weaponeer on the Enola Gay, the aircraft which dropped the Little Boy atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan in 1945.

In the years immediately after the war, Dahlgren's work force was cut back. But the laboratory's strong computer and ordnance expertise kept the base open and Navy work flowing. Subsequently, the onset of the Cold War and Korea again placed demands for new offensive and defensive ship systems. In 1958, with the former Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik I, a space race began. Dahlgren opened its gates that year to its first tenant activity, the Naval Space Surveillance Center, which selected Dahlgren to be at the center of the laboratory's growing computer advances. It was around this time that Dahlgren became heavily involved with the development of Fleet Ballistic Missiles, later called Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Dahlgren was on the leading edge of naval surface weapons work with programs such as the Tomahawk missile, which improved the Navy's capacity to perform attacks on land targets from a distance that decreased the risk to ships. Dahlgren also was critical in work to protect Navy ships from enemy missile and air attacks with programs such as the Standard missile and the Aegis Combat System. That work continues in 2017, along with the electromagnetic railgun, DDG 1000, Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), and Chemical Biological and Radiological Defense.

Because of the laboratory's broad-based growth in research and development and with its new missions, Dahlgren's name officially changed to the Naval Weapons Laboratory in 1959. It was later changed to the Naval Surface Weapons Center in 1974 with the merger of the former Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White Oak, Maryland. In 1987, the name was changed again to the Naval Surface Warfare Center as new and expanded missions were added. And, in 1992, with the consolidations of naval laboratories into one headquarters center, it became the Dahlgren Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center. [4]

NSWCDD conducts basic research in all systems-related areas and pursues scientific disciplines including biotechnology, chemistry, mathematics, laser and computer technology, chemical, mechanical, electrical and systems engineering, physics and computer science. [5] Distinguished figures who have worked for the NSWCDD include physicists Albert Einstein, Edward Teller, Carl Norden, and computer pioneers Howard Aiken [4] and Grace Hopper.

Engineering projects of historical or military significance developed at NSWCDD include the triggering device on the Hiroshima atomic bomb, the Norden Bombsight used on most American bombers such as the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator and B-29 Superfortress during World War II, the Standard missile used on modern United States Navy warships, and the warhead for the AIM-54 Phoenix. Current projects include the majority of US research into directed-energy weapons, railgun technology and weapons integration for the Littoral combat ship.

Combat [ edit ]

Combat is very similar to land warfare. The major differences are:

  • Strength damage is higher than with land combat, so ships are more likely to sink in combat.
  • Defeated ships have a chance to get captured.

Combat tactics [ edit ]

As with land combat, navies have combat tactics that give bonuses against specific other tactics. How effective a tactic is depends on the fleet's composition.

    Liburnian: 50% Trireme: 100% Octere: 100% Mega-Polyreme: 200%
    Harassment: +20% Close Ranks: −10%
    Trireme: 100% Hexere: 100% Mega-Polyreme: 100%
    Close Ranks: +20% Probing Attack: −10%
    Trireme: 50% Hexere: 100% Octere: 100% Mega-Polyreme: 100%
    Frontal Assault: +20% Naval Envelopment: −10%
    Liburnian: 100% Trireme: 100% Octere: 100%
    Probing Attack: +20% Frontal Assault: −10%
    Liburnian: 100% Tetrere: 100% Hexere: 100%
    Naval Envelopment: +20% Harassment: −10%

Naval Science (NS)

Leadership seminar addresses professional issues of military leadership, ethics, foreign policy, internal affairs and naval warfare doctrine. Subject matter centers on preparation for commissioned service in the US Naval Forces by examining the role of the junior officer in the employment of naval power. Mostly student originated, the periods include panel discussions, practical applications, guest lecturers from academia, and speakers currently serving in deployed naval forces.

NS.11 Introduction to Naval Science

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-3 units

Introduction to naval science. General introduction to the US Navy and Marine Corps. Emphasizes organizational structure, warfare components, and assigned roles/missions of US Navy/USMC. Covers all aspects of naval service from its relative position within DOD, to specific warfare communities/career paths. Also includes basic elements of leadership/Navy core values. Designed to give student initial exposure to many elements of naval culture. Provides students with conceptual framework and working vocabulary. Completion of MIT NROTC Orientation Program strongly recommended.

NS.12 Seapower and Maritime Affairs

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-6 units

A study of the US Navy and the influence of sea power upon history. Incorporates both a historical and political science process to explore the major events, attitudes, personalities, and circumstances which have imbued the US Navy with its proud history and rich tradition. Deals with issues of national imperatives in peacetime as well as war, varying maritime philosophies which were interpreted into naval strategies/doctrines, budgetary concerns which shaped force realities, and the pursuit of American diplomatic objectives, concluding with the current search for direction in the post-Cold War era and beyond.

NS.200 Naval Science Leadership Seminar

Subject meets with NS.100, NS.300, NS.400
Prereq: None
U (Fall, Spring)
0-2-2 units

Leadership seminar addresses professional issues of military leadership, ethics, foreign policy, internal affairs and naval warfare doctrine. Subject matter centers on preparation for commissioned service in the US Naval Forces by examining the role of the junior officer in the employment of naval power. Mostly student originated, the periods include panel discussions, practical applications, guest lecturers from academia, and speakers currently serving in deployed naval forces.

NS.21 Leadership and Management

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-6 units

Explores leadership from the military perspective taught by professors of military science from the Army, Navy and Air Force. Survey of basic principles for successfully managing and leading people, particularly in public service and the military. Develops skills in topics such as oral and written communication techniques, planning, team building, motivation, ethics, decision-making, and managing change. Relies heavily on interactive experiential classes with case studies, student presentations, role plays, and discussion. Also appropriate for non-management science majors.

NS.22 Navigation

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-6 units

Comprehensive study of the theory, principles, and procedures of piloting and maritime navigation, including mathematics of navigation, practical work involving navigational instruments, sight reduction by <em>pro forma</em> and computerized methods, charts, publications, and voyage planning. CORTRAMID cruise recommended.

NS.300 Naval Science Leadership Seminar

Subject meets with NS.100, NS.200, NS.400
Prereq: None
U (Fall, Spring)
0-2-4 units

Leadership seminar addresses professional issues of military leadership, ethics, foreign policy, internal affairs and naval warfare doctrine. Subject matter centers on preparation for commissioned service in the US Naval Forces by examining the role of the junior officer in the employment of naval power. Mostly student originated, the periods include panel discussions, practical applications, guest lecturers from academia, and speakers currently serving in deployed naval forces.

NS.31 Naval Ships Systems I: Engineering

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-6 units

Lecture series on technological fundamentals of applied and planned naval ships Systems from an engineering viewpoint. Topics include stability, propulsion, ship control and systems.

NS.32 Naval Ship Systems II Weapons

Prereq: NS.31 or permission of instructor
U (Spring)
3-0-6 units

Overview of the properties and behavior of electromagnetic radiation pertaining to maritime applications. Topics include communications, radar detection, electro-optics, tracking and guidance systems. Sonar and underwater sound propagation also discussed. Examples taken from systems found on naval ships and aircraft. Selected readings on naval weapons and fire control systems. Physics I (GIR) and Calculus II (GIR) recommended.

NS.33 Evolution of Warfare

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2020-2021: Not offered
Acad Year 2021-2022: U (Spring)
3-0-6 units

Traces development of warfare from dawn of recorded history to present, focusing on the impact of major military theorists, strategists, tacticians, and technological developments. Seeks to understand the relationships between military training, weaponry, strategies and tactics, and the societies and cultures that produce and then are defended by those military structures. By examining the association between a society and its military, students acquire basic sense of strategy, develop an understanding of military alternatives, and see the impact of historical precedents on military thoughts and actions.

NS.400 Naval Science Leadership Seminar

Subject meets with NS.100, NS.200, NS.300
Prereq: None
U (Fall, Spring)
0-2-4 units

Leadership seminar addresses professional issues of military leadership, ethics, foreign policy, internal affairs and naval warfare doctrine. Subject matter centers on preparation for commissioned service in the US Naval Forces by examining the role of the junior officer in the employment of naval power. Mostly student originated, the periods include panel discussions, practical applications, guest lecturers from academia, and speakers currently serving in deployed naval forces.

NS.41 Navigation and Naval Operations

Prereq: Recommended first class cruise and NS.22
U (Fall)
3-0-6 units

Comprehensive study of tactical and strategic considerations to the employment of naval forces, including communications, tactical formations and dispositions, relative motion, maneuvering board, and nautical rules of the road.

NS.42 Leadership and Ethics

Prereq: NS.21
U (Spring)
3-0-6 units

Analyzes ethical decision-making and leadership principles. Students read and discuss texts written by such philosophers as Aristotle, Kant, and Mill to gain familiarity with the realm of ethical theory. Students then move on to case studies in which they apply these theories to resolve moral dilemmas. Provides a basic background in the duties and responsibilities of a junior division and watch officer strong emphasis on the junior officer's responsibilities in training, counseling, and career development. Student familiarization with equal opportunity and drug/alcohol rehabilitation programs. Principles of leadership reinforced through leadership case studies.

NS.43 Fundamentals of Maneuver Warfare

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2020-2021: U (Spring)
Acad Year 2021-2022: Not offered
3-0-6 units

Introduces the United States Marine Corps' historical operating concepts as well as the employment of current doctrine known as "maneuver warfare." Utilizes historical examples from past military campaigns, as well as the current Marine Corps' doctrine and philosophy, to increase the student's critical thinking and decision-making ability. Aims to create future leaders capable of identifying and solving complex problems in future operating environments across the spectrum of conflict. Module one outlines the fundamental concepts, themes, and historical conflicts involving and relating to maneuver warfare. Module two articulates and describes the Marine Corps' current warfighting doctrine. Module three describes the Marine Corps' future operating concept and advancement of warfighting doctrine.

18th century

Rodger goes beyond battle history and fleet operations to examine the organizational superiority of the Royal Navy, especially in contrast with the Frenc navy. He argues the British were better at ship architecture (gaining speed via bronze plating), maintenance, practical officer training, and crew care. British repair docks could handle ships of the line better than the French, who concentrated on construction rather than maintenance. Much credit goes to the Admiralty, the century before, under the direction of civilian Samuel Pepys as secretary and chief administrative officer. [1]

Naval Special Warfare Group One (NSWG-1)

Located in Coronado California, Naval Special Warfare Group One (NSWG-1) includes all of the odd numbered SEAL Teams: One, Three, Five, Seven and Nine. In addition to the SEAL Teams Group One also includes Logistical Support Unit One (LOGSU-1) who is responsible for the supply and logistics of all West coast teams and supporting units.

Within any Naval Special Warfare Group there are also forward deployed command components tasked with supporting deployed SEAL teams and platoons while deployed. Group One has two such “Units”. One in Guam and the other in Bahrain. Between the two units they support operational areas in the Pacific as well as Asia supporting both the U.S Pacific Command (PACOM) as well as U.S Central Command (CENTCOM).

Forward deployed “Units” are essential to the movement and operational capabilities of NSW. When you arrive in country it is the Unit that has everything sorted and coordinated for you allowing you to stay focused on operational concerns.

Naval Special Warfare Group Two (NSWG-2)

Located in Little Creek Virginia, NSW Group Two includes all of the even numbered SEAL Teams: Two, Four, Eight and Ten. You’ll notice the SEAL Team Six is not represented here. I’ll let you guess why.

Group Two has the same supporting elements as Group One. Group Two is also responsible for supporting forward deployed units Two and Ten which are both located in Stuttgart, Germany. These units support the European Command (EUCOM) as well as the U.S Africa Command (AFRICOM).
In 2008, I remember arriving in Kenya and being greeted by several local drivers with their vans. They quickly picked us up from the airport and had us checked in and unpacked at our hotel in a matter of minutes.

Shooting ranges, food, dropzones, local connections, and more. The men and women who support the forward deployed units make all things possible. A famous General once said that war is more about logistics than strategy. These guys make things happen.

Naval Special Warfare Group Three (NSWG-3)

Located in Coronado California along side Group One. Group three commands NSW’s undersea assets known as SEAL Delivery Vehicles or SDVs. There are two SDV detachments. SDV Team 1 is located in Hawaii and SDV Detachment one is located out of Virginia.

Naval Special Warfare Group Four (NSWG-4)

Located in Virginia Group 4 overseas the Special Boat Units of known as SWCCs- Special Warfare Combat Crewman. This includes Boat teams 12 – 20 and 22.

The Special Boat Teams of Naval Special Warfare are an essential part of this fighting package. From high speed boats to Yachts these guys can drive it, sail it or even parachute it in.

Naval Special Warfare Group Ten (NSWG-10)

Located in Virginia Group 10 is made up of a new type of warfighter which falls under the name “Support Activity”. With a heavy emphasis on

Intelligence and strategy Support Activity One and Two enable all of the warfighting groups of Naval Special Warfare to function with high levels of efficiency and secrecy.

Little is known about the missions of Support Activity One or Two, but we can speculate that they are operating on the pointy tip of the spear.

Naval Special Warfare Group Eleven (NSWG-11)

Operating out of Coronado Naval Special Warfare Group Eleven makes up the Reserve aspect of the SEAL Teams. I’ve often heard that there is no such thing as a SEAL Reservist. While you can’t enter the SEAL teams through the reserves a SEAL, if he chooses to stay connected, can do so by entering the Naval Reserves.

SEAL Team Seventeen is located on the West Coast and Eighteen on the East. SEAL reserves can activate at anytime and join the fight seamlessly alongside their active duty brothers.

Naval Special Warfare Development Group (DEVGRU)

Located in Virginia DEVGRU, formerly known as SEAL Team Six, is officially tasked with the testing and evaluation of all technology, tactics, procedures and strategies used by Naval Special Warfare.

Founded by Richard Marcinko in the 80’s DEVGRU has risen to legendary status as the unit has successfully executed some of the most famous missions in Special Operations history.

Naval Special Warfare Center (NSWC)

NSWC also referred to as “The Center” is located in Coronado California. Named after Phil Bucklew, the center oversees an incredible variety of training across the globe.

It is here, a seemingly innocuous place that basic SEAL training called BUD/S, Basic Underwater Demolition SEAL training occurs. A simple 8 mile strip of the cold Pacific, an obstacle course and a rough, skin destroying, piece of cement known as the “Grinder” is about all there is to it. Add in a highly motivated and imaginative instructor staff and SEALs are created.

Besides BUD/S the center is also responsible for many other courses of instruction (COIs) around the world.

The Naval Special Warfare community is continuously growing as its role in the Global War On Terror (GWOT) increasingly grows in relevance. The world has changed a lot since our UDT forefathers fought for our country during World War II and Naval Special Warfare has been out in front of the fight the entire time.


  1. ↑ Sims, William Sowden: The Victory at Sea, New York, 1920. Reprinted with introduction by David F. Trask: The Victory at Sea, Annapolis 1984.
  2. ↑ Rodman, Hugh: Yarns of a Kentucky Admiral, London 1929.
  3. ↑ Still, William N.: Crisis at Sea. The United States Navy in European Waters in World War I, Gainesville 2006.
  4. ↑ Carlisle, Rodney: Sovereignty at Sea. U.S. Merchant Ships and American Entry into World War I, Gainesville 2010.
  5. ↑ Rossano, Geoffrey L.: Stalking the U-Boat. U.S. Naval Aviation in Europe during World War I, Gainesville 2010.
  6. ↑ A classic work on the diplomatic complications remains: May, Ernest R.: The World War and American Isolation, 1914-1917, Chicago 1966. See especially chapters vi and vii.
  7. ↑ For a full and balanced account of the Lusitania affair see: Bailey, Thomas A./Ryan, Paul B.: The Lusitania Disaster. An Episode in Modern Warfare and Diplomacy, New York 1975.
  8. ↑ Carlisle, Sovereignty 2010, pp. 34-35, 61.
  9. ↑ Ibid., pp. 106-121.
  10. ↑ Still, Crisis 2006, pp. 6-8.
  11. ↑ Sims to [Secretary of the Navy] Daniels, 19 April 1917 in: Simpson, Michael (ed): Anglo-American Naval Relations, 1917-1919, Aldershot, 1991, pp. 38-43.
  12. ↑ Klachko, Mary/Trask, David: Admiral William Shepherd Benson. First Chief of Naval Operations, Annapolis, 1987, pp. 57-60.
  13. ↑ The anti-submarine activities of the destroyers and small craft are covered in detail in Still, Crisis 2006, chapters xiii-xv.
  14. ↑ Halpern, Paul G.: A Naval History of World War I, Annapolis, 1994, pp. 430-435.
  15. ↑ Idem: The Naval War in the Mediterranean, 1914-1918, London/Annapolis, 1987, pp. 503-507.
  16. ↑ Friedman, Norman: Naval Weapons of World War One, Barnsley, 2011, p. 398.
  17. ↑ See Hackmann, Willem: Seek & Strike, London, 1984, chapter iv.
  18. ↑ Still, Crisis 2006, pp. 449-457.
  19. ↑ Ibid., pp. 461ff Van Wyen, Adrian O.: Naval Aviation in World War I, Washington, 1969, p. 89.
  20. ↑ Goldberg, Mark H.: The “Hog Islanders.” The Story of 122 American Ships, Kings Point, New York, 1991, pp. 3-13.
  21. ↑ Still, Crisis at Sea 2006, pp. 342-346.
  22. ↑ Halpern, Naval History 1994, pp. 435-437.
  23. ↑ Friedman, Naval Weapons 2011, pp. 375-377.
  24. ↑ Halpern, Naval History 1994, pp. 399, 438-441.
  25. ↑ Grant, Robert M.: U-Boat Hunters, Annapolis, 2003, pp. 144-145.

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