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Carpetani Belt Buckle

Carpetani Belt Buckle


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Vettones

Lujan (2007) concludes that some of the names of the Vettones show clearly western Hispano-Celtic features. [3] A Celtiberian origin has also been claimed. [1] Organized since the 3rd Century BC, the Vettones formed a tribal confederacy of undetermined strength. Even though their tribes’ names are obscure, the study of local epigraphic evidence has identified the Calontienses, Coerenses, Caluri and Bletonesii but the others remain unknown.

A predominately horse- [4] and cattle-herder people that practiced transhumance, archeology has identified them with the local 2nd Iron Age ‘Cogotas II’ Culture, also known as the ‘Culture of the Verracos’ (verracos de piedra), named after the crude granite sculptures representing pigs, wild boars and bulls that still dot their former region. These are one of their most notable enduring legacies today, the other possibly being the game of Calva, which dates to the time of their influence. The Iron Age sites and respective cemeteries of Las Cogotas, La Osera, El Raso de Candeleda, La Mesa de Miranda and Alcántara have provided enough elements – weapons, shields, fibulae, belt buckles, bronze cauldrons, Campanian and Greek pottery – which attest the strong contacts with the Pellendones of the eastern meseta, the Iberian south and the Mediterranean.

The Vettones lived in the northwestern part of the meseta—the high central upland plain of the Iberian peninsula—the region where the modern Spanish provinces of Ávila and Salamanca are today, as well as parts of Zamora, Toledo, Cáceres and also the eastern border areas of modern Portuguese territory. Their own capital city, which the ancient sources mysteriously failed to mention at all, has not yet been found though other towns mentioned by Ptolemy [5] were located, such as Capara (Ventas de Cápara), Obila (Ávila?), Mirobriga (Ciudad Rodrigo?), Turgalium (Trujillo, Cáceres), Alea (Alía – Cáceres) and probably Bletisa / Bletisama (Ledesma, Salamanca). Other probable Vettonian towns were Tamusia (Villasviejas de Tamuja, near Botija, Cáceres Celtiberian-type mint: Tamusiensi), Ocelon / Ocelum (Castelo Branco), Cottaeobriga (Almeida) and Lancia (Serra d’Opa).

Traditional allies of the Lusitani, the Vettones helped the latter in their struggle against the advancing Carthaginians led by Hasdrubal the Fair and Hannibal in the late 3rd century BC. At first placed under nominal Punic suzerainty by the time of the Second Punic War, the Vettones threw off their yoke soon after 206 BC. However, a mercenary contingent of Vettones accompanied Hannibal on his march to Italy, led by the chieftain Balarus. [6] At the Lusitanian Wars of the 2nd century BC they joined once again the Lusitani under Punicus, Caesarus and Caucenus in their attacks on Baetica, Carpetania, the Cyneticum and the failed incursion on the North African town of Ocilis (modern Asilah, Morocco) in 153 BC. [7] [8] Although incorporated around 134-133 BC into Hispania Ulterior, the Vettones continued to raid the more romanized regions further south and during the Roman civil wars of the early 1st century BC, they even provided auxiliary troops to Sertorius' army in 77-76 BC. [9] Crushed by the provincial propraetor Julius Caesar in 61 BC, they later rose in support of Pompey's faction and fought at the battle of Munda (Montilla – Córdoba) in Baetica. [10]

Romanization Edit

The Romans promptly began to establish military colonies at Kaisarobriga or Caesarobriga (Talavera de la Reina – Toledo) and Norba Caesarina (near Cáceres). In around 27-13 BC the Vettones were aggregated to the newly created Roman province of Lusitania with Emerita Augusta (Mérida) as the capital of the new province. [11] Despite their progressive assimilation into the Roman world, the Vettones managed to retain their martial traditions, which enabled them to provide the Roman Army with an auxiliary cavalry unit (Ala), the Ala Hispanorum Vettonum Civium Romanorum, which participated in Emperor Claudius' invasion of Britain in AD 43–60. [12]

The Vettones are not to be confused with the Vettonenses, inhabitants of Vettona (today's Bettona) in Umbria.


Culture

A predominately horse- [5] and cattle-herder people that practiced transhumance, archeology has identified them with the local 2nd Iron Age ‘Cogotas II’ Culture, also known as the ‘Culture of the Verracos’ (verracos de piedra), named after the crude granite sculptures representing pigs, wild boars and bulls that still dot their former region. These are one of their most notable enduring legacies today, the other possibly being the game of Calva, which dates to the time of their influence.
The Iron Age sites and respective cemeteries of Las Cogotas, La Osera, El Raso de Candeleda, La Mesa de Miranda and Alcántara have provided enough elements – weapons, shields, fibulae, belt buckles, bronze cauldrons, Campanian and Greek pottery – which attest the strong contacts with the Pellendones of the eastern meseta, the Iberian south and the Mediterranean.


Sources

Bury, J.B., History of the Later Roman Empire. London: MacMillan and Co.1923, Bury, J.B. The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians. New York: Norton Library. 1967, Byzantium, Byzantine Studies on the Internet. ttp://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium/, Delbrück, Hans, The Barbarian Invasions. Lincon: The University of Nebraska, Press.1990, Fuller, J.F.C. ed. Terraine John. The Decisive Battles of the Western World 480 BC –1757. London: Grafton Books. Fuller, J.F.C. A Military History of the Western World. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 1954, Gibbon, Edward, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume the Third and Volume the Fourth. London: The Pengiun Press.1994, Goldsworthy Adrian Keith. The Roman Army at War 100 BC-AD 200. Oxford: Clarendon, Press. 1998, Jones.A.H.M. The Roman Empire 284-602 A Social and Administrative Survey. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.1964, Liang Jennifer. Warriors of the Dark Ages. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd. 2000, Lot, Ferdinand, The End of The Ancient world and the Beginnings of The Middle Ages.New York: Harper Torchbooks.1961, Macdowall Simon. The Late Roman Cavalryman 236-565 AD. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. 1999, Macdowall Simon. The Late Roman Infantryman 236-565. London: Osprey. 1999, Macdowall Simon. Germanic Warrior 236-568 AD. London: Osprey. 1996, Malcom Todd. Everyday Life of the Barbarians. New York. Dorset Press. 1972, Newark Tim. The Barbarians. Warriors and Wars of the Dark Ages. Poole: Blandford, Press. 1986, Norwich John Julius. Byzantium The Early Centuries. London: Penguin Books. 1990,Procopius. History of the Wars. Volumes III-V. London: William Heinemann Ltd.1962, Veber May. ‘Constantinople’. Vanished Civilizations. Sydney: Reader’s Digest., 1983, Wolfram Herwig. History of the Goths. Berkeley : University of California Press.1988.

“Twilight of the Ostrogoths: The Battles of Taginae and Mt. Vesuvius” by L. H. Dyck was originally published in the Military History Quarterly, Winter 2005, Volume 17, No. 2.

The feature image for the net article is by Alexander Zick, showing the Gothic King Teias, his shield pierced, at his heroic last stand on the slopes of Mt. Lactarius.


Location Vettones_section_2

The Vettones lived in the northwestern part of the meseta—the high central upland plain of the Iberian peninsula—the region where the modern Spanish provinces of Ávila and Salamanca are today, as well as parts of Zamora, Toledo, Cáceres and also the eastern border areas of modern Portuguese territory. Vettones_sentence_8

Their own capital city, which the ancient sources mysteriously failed to mention at all, has not yet been found though other towns mentioned by Ptolemy were located, such as Capara (Ventas de Cápara), Obila (Ávila? Vettones_sentence_9

), Turgalium (Trujillo, Cáceres), Alea (Alía – Cáceres) and probably Bletisa / Bletisama (Ledesma, Salamanca). Vettones_sentence_11

Other probable Vettonian towns were Tamusia (Villasviejas de Tamuja, near Botija, Cáceres Celtiberian-type mint: Tamusiensi), Ocelon / Ocelum (Castelo Branco), Cottaeobriga (Almeida) and Lancia (Serra d’Opa). Vettones_sentence_12


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Carpetani Belt Buckle - History

Les Celtibères. Sous ce nom se cache un peuple parfois méconnu mais d'une importance considérable dans l'histoire de l'Ibérie. Cette péninsule borée par une mer et un océan, la partie la plus au sud-ouest du continent aurasiatique, fut de tous temps un carrefour de civilisations, et le point de passage traditionnel vers le continent africain à l'ouest. L'ibérie disposait à une époque ancienne (néolithique) de peuples autochtones dispersés, des colonies s'installèrent sur sa façade océanique à l'ère classique, grecs à l'est (vers 600 av. jc.) et phéniciens au sud-est. La Culture de Tartessos est l'une des plus avançées des civilisations Ibériques, remontant à l'âge du bronze. Pendant des siècles des royaumes se constituèrent et s'affrontèrent, et des mouvement migratoires venus du nord s'y produisirent. Il y eut en effet plusieurs vagues Celtiques importantes venant des pyrrhénées vers 1000 av.jc. jusqu'en 700 av.jc. environ, aboutissant à un repeuplement Celtique de l'ouest (pays lusitanien) et du centre-nord de l'ibérie. On trouvait, outre les Lusitaniens, les Galiciens et Asturiens, et les Celtibères au centre. L'est se composait de vieilles civilisations pré-celtiques influencées par la caulture grecque et la culture phénicienne. Les Celtibères et autres peuples connectés comme les Celtici au sud, étaient de culture Celte mais avaient évolué localement de manière relativement autonome.

L'histoire de l'Ibérie commença à prendre un tournant décisif après la première guerre Punique, perdu par les Carthaginois dont le généralissime, Hamilcar Barca, entreprit la conquête pour compenser la perte de la Sicile. Il mourut avantd'avoir pu réaliser son rêve, mais une grande partie de la péninsule fit partie de l'empire Carthaginois, et nombre de royaumes liés par traités. Cette riche plate-forme allait servir de tremplin à Hannibal, son fils, pour comme il l'avait juré, mettre fin à l'hégémonie de Rome. Les Celtibères entrant dans l'orbite Punique lui furent fidèles, et sans doute ses meilleurs mercenaires. Les Celtibères étaient le résultat du mixage de populations entre Celtes et autochtones depuis des siècles. Ils gardaient l'impétuosité traditionnelle des Celtes et une bonne partie de leur armement et tactiques. L'épée par exemple était toujours Celte, la Falcata restait l'arme des Ibères proprement dit. Sur le plan vestimentaire, l'abandon des braies était une autre caractéristique. Les Celtibères portaient à la place des Femoralla, sorte de caleçons longs. Plusieurs peuples Celtibères dominaient : Les Arevaci, Belli, Titti, et Lusones. Ces royaumes s'appuyaient sur un réseau d'Oppidum fortifiés. Fidèles alliés de Carthage, les Celtibères ne furent "pacifiés" que vers 179 av. jc. et définitivement soumis après la défaite de leur allié Romain durant la guerre civile, Sertorius, en 72 av.jc.

En tant que groupe ethnique dominant, les Celtibères ont toute latitude pour soumettre les autres peuples de la péninsule, exercer un rapport de force avec les gourmands Cathaginois au sud et tenir en respect des Gaulois toujours entreprenant au Nord. Protégés par leur frontière naturelle, les Pyrhhénées, les Celtibères ont une plate-forme idéale pour lancer une expansion en Europe comme en Afrique et à l'ouest de la méditerranée.

The Celtiberians. under this term were hidden one of the most influencial culture in iberian history. Iberia was ever a crossing point between west Europe and Africa, and was inhabited sincethe neolithic by several proto-civilizations. One of the most famous during the bronze age, was the Tartessian culture, a product of the phoenician colonization in the south, largely spread around. Later, in 600-500 bc, some greek colonies were settled on the eastern coast. The word "iberian", known in greek cutlure since 500 bc. was probably derived of the river Ebro, a natural frontier between the new settlers and the whole peninsula. Around 1000 bc to 700 bc, several massive wave of celtic invaders changed the face of the peninsula : They settled in the west, north, and center, and mixed with local populations, giving them the name of "Celtiberians". The last were known to have been separated between the Lusitanians, Galicians, Asturians, Celtici, and Celtiberians proper, mostly to the center and north of the peninsula. Amongst the lasts, the Arevaci beeing the most powerful, others beeing the Titti, Belli, and Lusones. The Arevaci dominated the whole center of the peninsula thanks to a web of powerful fortified Oppida.

The Celtiberians differed from the Iberian proper, by several ways : This was a bellicist culture, making and a large place to weapons. The Celtiberian typical sword was by no means, similar to the Celtic one, beeing double-edged and tall. Their main shields were the Scutum. Their most popular helmets were the tall, pointed Halstatt models. But Unlike the Celts, they wore no trousers or "braca" but short sleeves similar to the later roman Femoralla. They were also given leather jackets and bronze plates or bronze scale armors instead of chainmail, which was lately adopted. Local iberian caetra had a strong inluence over western Lusitanians who used very large versions. Masks of war were also used by these populations. The Celtiberians allied themselves with Hamilcar Barca when he landed in southern spain in order to conquer a new empire after the loss of Sicilia and several other islands in the western mediterranean. From 236 to his death in 228 bc, he gained the Carthaginians an impressive territory, both by arms and diplomacy. The Celtiberians prove themselves truthful allies of his son Hannibal when he took command of the army and launched his campaign against Saguntum. They proved also their skills and courage, beeing probably the best mercenaries in Hannibal's army in Italy and even in Africa.

With their bellicose behaviour, mixed armaments and tactics, a territory protected on its only land frontier by a mountain ridge, rich and fertile lands, abundant with iron, the best in Europe, the Celtiberians are the best placed for an hegemony in the whole peninsula, over other iberians, fellow Lusitanians, Galicians and Asturians, to hold in respect the Gauls beyond the Pyrrhenees and in the south-east, the ever ambitious Carthaginians.



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